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Test one, Anthropology Cultura, ANTH 2351, epcc

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What are the goals of cultural anthropology?
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Cultural anthropology is the comparative study of human societies and cultures. Goals are to describe, analyze and explain different cultures, to show how groups have adapted to their environments and how this has given significance to their lives
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What is physical/biological anthropology
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the disipline of anthropology that studies people from a biological perspective, focusing primarily on aspects of humankind that are genetically inherited.
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What’s the focus of linguistic anthropology?
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seek to explain the very nature of language and its use by humans. understanding language and its relation to culture.
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Anthropologists who study the past are known as ____________. How do they go about their work?
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archaeologists
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In most academic disciplines in the United States , human behavior is usually studied primarily from the point of view of western society
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True
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Anthropologists believe that we can only understand who we are as human beings, our potentials and our perls through the study of human in its total variety
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True
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Humans everywhere consider their own behavior not only right, but also natural, normal and appear logical to them
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True
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The critical factor that distinguishes anthropology from other fields of study is
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Its interest in describing humankind throughout time and in all parts of the world.
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One of the most critical goals of cultural anthropology as an academic discipline is to
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Describe, analyze, and explain different cultures.
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To say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in
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The integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior.
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What are the 5 fields or specializations in anthropology, Just list them
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Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Archaeology Biological Anthropology Applied Anthropology
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Anthropologists say that human adaptation is biocultural. Which of the following best represents what is meant by this statement?
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Human adaptation involves both biological and cultural dimensions and each influences the other.
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Which of the following studies how languages are related to each other?
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Historical linguistics
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Archaeologists are principally interested in
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Understanding and reconstructing the cultures of past societies.
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A primary contribution of urban archaeologists is the development of
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New knowledge about people who resided at the site.
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Which of the following problems would an applied anthropologist be most likely to study?
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The ways in which health care delivery to American minority communities might be improved
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A critical insight of medical anthropology is that
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Disease and medicine never exist independently from culture.
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Psychiatry has been a frequent subject of medical anthropology. One critical finding is
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Doctors are most frequently trained to treat mental disease as a result of either biological dysfunction or psychosocial factors but not both.
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Indigenous peoples involve all of the following except
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Members of any group who dress as indigenous peoples and participate in native pow-wows.
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Which of the following best illustrates why applied anthropology is important today?
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It opens up new perspectives and insights in understanding our human differences
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All of the following statements about the understanding of culture in anthropology are correct except
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Culture is biologically and genetically transmitted from person to person
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What is ethnography?
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It is the process of doing qualitative, fieldwork-based research.
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An emic approach to the study of culture is one that emphasizes
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The description of a culture from the point of view of a member of the culture.
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Ethnocentrism is the tendency for every society to view itself as superior to other
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True
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Ethnocentrism is the tendency for every individual to consider him/herself the equal of others.
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False
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Ethnocentrism is the tendency for every individual to want to see another’s point of view
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False
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Ethnocentrism is the tendency for every society to value the group above the individual.
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False
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One critical difference between Western ethnocentrism and the ethnocentrism of many other peoples is
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Westerners have more often been in a position to impose their view of culture than have others.
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A positive value of ethnocentrism for a society is that it
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Helps members of a society bond together as a social unit.
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Cultural relativism requires that
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Values and customs be understood in terms of the culture of which they are a part.
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When ethnocentrism becomes very marked and begins to target a specific ethnic group, it can lead to Cultural relativism
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False
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When ethnocentrism becomes very marked and begins to target a specific ethnic group, it can lead to racism
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True
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In Anthropology, the concept of race
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Has been found to be inadequate for scientifically meaningful classification of humans.
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Biopsychological equality is the notion that
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All human groups have equal biological and mental capabilities.
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Traits such as skin color, hair color and texture, and nose shape are often chosen to determine race because:
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They are easily visible.
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Genetic studies indicate
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Individual differences are greater than the sum of differences between groups.
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New international conditions have created problems and opportunities for anthropologists working in the field. What are some of the challenges that J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat associates with doing “ethnography of violence”?
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There is often unstable political organization, difficult and dangerous physical conditions, and difficulties in making ethical decisions
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Anthropologist J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat argues that when an anthropologist pursues studies of “ethnography of violence,” the anthropologist and informant must have what type of relationship between them?
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Mutual Responsability
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Within the discipline of anthropology, globalization has
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Tended to increase the political involvement of some anthropologists.
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All of the following are ways that globalization has affected anthropology except
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Studies today are more holistic and tend to focus on the particular and specific characteristics of the societies in which the anthropologist is researching.
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Your textbook argues that multiculturalism
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Is inevitable in an increasingly globalized world.
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There is no such thing as a cultural universal.
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False
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There are cultural universals, but there is no single explanation about how they developed.
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True
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Anthropologists believe that cultural universals exist because at one time there was a single human culture.
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False
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Humans’ capacity for culture is based on our unique biology
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True
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Language is a human symbol system for communication, but it is not considered a means of cultural transmission.
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False
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Archaeologists infer culture from material remains of past societies.
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True
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Culture is human behavior that is genetically transmitted
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False
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A study that analyzes culture using Western scientific theories is called an etic ethnography
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True
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Applied anthropologists are usually trained in one of the four primary subdisciplines
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True
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Cultural relativism is the perceptual bias that prevents us from seeing the logic in other cultures.
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False
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Anthropologists have never discovered a valid and consistent way of dividing humanity into a fixed number of races.
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True
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Race is an important social fact but the big differences among human beings are the result of culture.
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True
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The American Anthropological Association’s current Code of Ethics has worked well in situations of violence and political danger.
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False
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Long-term fieldwork in cultural anthropology that involves living with and observing other people is called __________.
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Participant Observation
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What is the difference between the terms Society and Culture. Be complete in your answer
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Culture: the learn behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups. the primary means by which human adapt to their enviroment. Society: a group of people whi depend on one anothe survival or weel-being as well as the relationships among such people, including their status and roles
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What is the difference between an emic and an etic approach?
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anthropologist using the emic perspective seek to understand how cultures look from the inside. their goald is to enable coultural outsiders to gain a sense of what it might be like to be a member of the culture. anthropologist using an etic perspective to seek to derive principles or rules that explant the behavior of memebers of a culture.
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Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism are two major opposing ways of responding to cultural differences. Explain each, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses with regard to intercultural relationships.
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ethnocentrism is the notion that one´s own culture is superior to all others, anthropologist fidn that ethnocentrism is common among almost all people and may serve important rules in society. wever, anthopology also shows the problems of juding other people through the narrow perspective of one´s own culture.
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What is cultural relativism and is it the same as moral relativism. Explain this.
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cultural relativism is the bief that cultures must be understood as the products of their own histories, rather that judged by comparation with eachother or with our own cuture. cultural relativism differs from moral relativism: understing cultures on their own terms does not necessarily imply approval of them
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Although this is the introductory chapter, why do you think that anthropology is important to study-that is why should we study anthropology?
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anthropology prepares students for provides global information and thinking skill critical to succeeding in 21st century in world