Membrane Bound Organelles Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Membrane Bound Organelles?
Membrane-bound organelles are specialized structures present in the cell that are surrounded by a membrane. These organelles are responsible for carrying out specific cellular processes and play an important role in the functioning of eukaryotic cells. The most common types of membrane-bound organelles are the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes that carry proteins and lipids inside the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism, as well as storing calcium ions which can be utilized when needed. The ER also acts as a transport system between various parts of the cell. The Golgi Apparatus is composed of flattened membranous sacs which help to sort, process and package proteins into vesicles which can then be transported to their destination within the cell or exported outside. It also helps in repairing damaged portions of the plasma membrane as well as synthesizing carbohydrates such as glycolipids and glycoproteins. Lysosomes contain enzymes which digest macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides into smaller molecules that can be utilized by other parts of the cell for energy or structural purposes. They also serve to recycle old components from worn out cells or debris from pathogens invading them. Mitochondria produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation using oxygen from respiration in order to provide energy for cellular processes like active transport and muscle contraction. In addition they also play roles in signal transduction pathways involving calcium release into cytoplasm, hormone secretion etc., Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells where they use light energy from sunlight to produce food molecules like glucose by photosynthesis through a process called photophosphorylation which involves splitting water molecules into electrons (to make ATP), hydrogen ions (to form NADPH) and oxygen gas (released).