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Test 5 (Chapters 9,10,11)

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The smallest units of language that carry meaning are called…
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morphemes
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In ordinary speech production, the boundaries between syllables or between words are usually…
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not marked, so they must be determined by the perceiver (speech segmentation).
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Speech in a foreign language sounds very fast to a listener who is not familiar with the language. The idea that coarticulation makes speech seem slower in our own language but not in a foreign language…
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does NOT accurately explain this fact.
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Often extraneous noise interferes with our ability to hear all speech sounds. If a brief burst of noise prevents a phoneme from being heard, likely the listener will…
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be able to understand the sentences and will realize that the burst of noise occurred but will not know where the burst occurred.
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For fluent speakers of a language, rules of the language such as how to create new words are…
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often unconscious yet are reliably followed by speakers of the language.
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The claim that language is generative is the claim that…
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the units of language can be combined and recombined to create vast numbers of new linguistic entities.
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Phrase-structure…
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DOES NOT determine whether the sentence is true or false.
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Garden-path sentences illustrate that…
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interpreting a sentence as each word arrives may lead to errors.
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Stephen and Stephanie both have problems with speech. Stephen’s disorder characterized with speech such as, “Um…the…ahh…I want…” Stephanie’s disorder is characterized with speech such as “It’s easy because…boys are looking but they look…see the cat is with the boys and machines and purple.”
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Stephen is most likely suffering from Broca’s aphasia while Stephanie is suffering from Wernicke’s aphasia.
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Linguistic rules seem to be the source of children’s overregularization errors. This sort of error is visible whenever…
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A child says, “I goed.” or “He runned.”
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In the 1950s, the anthropologist Benjamin Whorf argued that our language determines the possible range of our thoughts. In subsequent decades, Whorf’s theories…
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have found little specific support, with the implication that language may guide our thoughts and memories but does not influence what it is possible for us to think.
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Knowing about how language is ordinarily used is technically called…
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pragmatics.
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Participants are given a task that requires them to zoom in on a mental image in order to inspect a detail. Evidence indicates that…
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the greater distance to be zoomed, the more time is required.
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If participants are asked to imagine an object, such as a dog, information that will be prominent in the mental image…
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corresponds well with the information that is prominent in an actual picture.
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One group of participants is instructed to imagine a cat, and the participants are then asked several yes/no questions about their image. A second group of participants is instructed simply to think about cats with no mention of imagery, and the participants are then asked the same yes/no questions. We expect that participants responding on the basis of the image will…
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respond more quickly to “Does the cat have a head?”
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Matt is shown two complex 3D images (A and B) and asked to determine if the images are identical. The images are aligned in different planes, so answering the question requires mentally rotating one of the images. There is…
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systematic correlation between the required rotation and reaction time.
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Hank is an eidetic imager. This means that…
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After viewing an image for a very short amount of time, he will draw the image in amazing detail, as if it were a photograph.
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If you are asked to imagine 3D, like a Necker cube, that is ambiguous with respect to depth…
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Your mental image will be based on one configuration or the other.
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Studies of moment-by-moment brain activity indicate that when participants are visualizing…
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activity levels are high in brain regions also crucial for visual perception.
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When asked to determine which city is farther south, Seattle or Montreal, people are likely to mistakenly say “Seattle”. This is probably because…
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some spatial information is stored in memory in a propositional form rather than an image form.
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In a memory experiment, participants were shown a form that could be interpreted in more than one way. Half the participants were told “Here is a picture of the sun.” The other participants were told “Here is a picture of a ship’s steering wheel.” Some time later, participants were asked to draw the exact form they had seen earlier. The data indicate that…
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participant’s drawing were biased in a fashion that reflected the labels they had been given earlier.
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Lisa and Katie are both using imagery mnemonics to try to remember the words “dog” and “Ferris wheel”. Lisa imagines a dog riding a Ferris wheel, while Katie remembers at a theme park walking her dog. Lisa’s strategy will…
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improve her memory for both words because the mnemonic is bizarre.
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According to Paivio…
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A word like “chair” is easier to memorize than a word like “faith”.
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In one study on picture memory, researchers showed participants pictures of typical scenes, such as a bedroom. In each typical scene, there were some unexpected items (e.g. a washing machine). During the test, participants were shown the same scene with a few changes. Results from this study indicate that…
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changes to the unexpected objects were often noticed.
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The expected value of an option is dependent on…
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the product of the probability of an outcome and the utility of the outcome.
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Utility is
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the subjective element of a decision that is indicated by our consumer behavior. Action with the highest expected utility should be taken.
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In Tversky and Kahneman’s hit and run eyewitness experiment with blue and green taxi cabs, probability of the cab being blue given the base rates of cab distribution and the eyewitness’s ability was estimated to be much higher (80%) than it actually was (41%). A reasonable explanation for this outcome is…
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The fact that base rates are often overlooked in estimating probability.
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In signal detection theory, the assumption that responding accuracy will depend on the overlap between two distributions and the criterion set for responding. With that info in mind, it is true that..
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if the subject chooses a low criterion, the false alarm rate is going to be high.
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Human judgment is bound to be subject and contain at least a few errors because…
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decisions are often based on memories and memory is sensitive to manipulations and errors.
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Reasoning from “man who” arguments is usually inappropriate because generalizing from a single case is justified only…
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for truly homogenous categories.
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Many of us overestimate our own popularity. This could be because we surround ourselves with people who like us, rather than with people who do not. Therefore it is easier for us to think of the names of people who like us than it is to think of the names of our enemies. this overestimation of popularity seems to derive from…
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using the availability heuristic.
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In several studies, participants have been asked to estimate the frequency of occurrence for various causes of death. This evidence suggests that..
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Participant’s frequency estimates are strongly influenced by how often a cause of death is discussed in the new media.
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When we encounter a highly unusual event, we are particularly like to notice and consider the event. As a consequence…
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the event will be easy to recall, leading us to overestimate the likelihood of this type of event.
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Megan cannot sleep at night because she is terribly worried about being robbed, which is highly unlikely. As her friend, you want to help her by describing judgement errors and why she should not lose any more sleep. Underestimating sample size for the number of robbers out there is…
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NOT contributing to her irrational fear.
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Research into whether personality traits can be diagnosed by descriptions of ink blots has shown that the pattern of observations that both experts and novices see…
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is often not real but rather based on illusory covariations.
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Dual process models stat that people have two ways of thinking…
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one is a fast and automatic process, whereas the other is slower but more accurate.
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Before reading about a depressed individual, participants are told the case is not at all typical. This instruction…
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will NOT affect participant’s spontaneous use of the representativeness heuristic.
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sentence
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A sequence of words that conforms to the rules of syntax (and so has the right constituents in the right sequence). (page 325)
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morpheme
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The smallest language unit that carries meaning. Psycholinguists distinguish content _____ (the primary carriers of meaning) from function _____ (which specify the relations among words). (page 325)
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phonemes
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The basic categories of sound used to convey language. For example, the words “peg” and “beg” differ in their initial ______—[p] in one case, [b] in the other. (page 326)
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voicing
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One of the properties that distinguishes different categories of speech sounds. A sound is considered _____ if the vocal folds are vibrating while the sound is produced. If the vocal folds start vibrating sometime after the sound begins (i.e., with a long voice-onset time), the sound is considered not ______. (page 326)
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manner of production
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The way in which a speaker momentarily obstructs the flow of air out of the lungs to produce a speech sound. For example, the airflow can be fully stopped for a moment, as it is in the [t] or [b] sound; or the air can continue to flow, as it does in the pronunciation of [f] or [v]. (page 327)
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place of articulation
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The position at which a speaker momentarily obstructs the flow of air out of the lungs to produce a speech sound. For example, the __________ for the [b] sound is the lips; the _________ for the [d] sound is created by the tongue briefly touching the roof of the mouth. (page 327)
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speech segmentation
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The process through which a stream of speech is “sliced” into its constituent words and, within words, into the constituent phonemes. (page 328)
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coarticulation
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A trait of speech production in which the way a sound is produced is altered slightly by the immediately previous and immediately following sounds. Because of this “overlap” in speech production, the acoustic properties of each speech sound vary according to the context in which that sound appears. (page 329)
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phonemic restoration effect
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A pattern in which people “hear” phonemes that actually are not presented but that are highly likely in that context. Thus, if one is presented with the word “legislature” but with the [s] sound replaced by a cough, one is likely to hear the [s] sound anyhow. (page 331)
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categorical perception
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The tendency to hear speech sounds “merely” as members of a category—the category of “z” sounds, the category of “p” sounds, and so on. As a consequence, one tends to hear sounds within the category as being rather similar to each other; sounds from different categories, however, are perceived as quite different. (page 331)
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referent
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The actual object, action, or event in the world that a word or phrase refers to. (page 335)
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generativity
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The idea that you can combine and recombine basic units to create (or “generate”) new and more-complex entities. Linguistic rules, for example, are this way, because they govern how a limited number of words can be combined and recombined to produce a vast number of sentences. (page 336)
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syntax
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Rules governing the sequences and combinations of words in the formation of phrases and sentences. (page 337)
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phrase structure rule
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A constraint that governs the pattern of branching in a phrase structure. Equivalently, these rules govern what the constituents must be for any syntactic element of a sentence. (page 338)
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noun phrase (NP)
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One of the constituents of a phrase structure that defines a sentence. (page 338)
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verb phrase (VP)
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One of the constituents of a phrase structure that defines a sentence. (page 338)
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tree structure
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A style of depiction often used to indicate hierarchical relationships, such as the relationships (specified by phrase structure rules) among the words in a phrase or sentence. (page 338)
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prescriptive rules
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Rules describing how things are supposed to be instead of how they are. Often called normative rules. (page 339)
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descriptive rules
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Rules that simply describe the regularities in a pattern of observations, with no commentary on whether the pattern is “proper,” “correct,” or “desirable.” (page 339)
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linguistic universal
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A rule that appears to apply to every human language. (page 342)
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parsing
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The process through which an input is divided into its appropriate elements—for example, dividing the stream of incoming speech into its constituent words—or in which a sequence of words is divided into its constituent phrases. (page 344)
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garden-path sentence
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A sentence that initially leads the reader to one understanding of how the sentence’s words are related but then requires a change in this understanding in order to comprehend the sentence. Examples are “The old man ships” and “The horse raced past the barn fell.” (page 345)
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minimal attachment
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A heuristic used in sentence parsing. The listener or reader proceeds through the sentence seeking the simplest possible phrase structure that will accommodate the words heard so far. (page 345)
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extralinguistic context
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The social and physical setting in which an utterance is encountered; usually, cues within this setting guide the interpretation of the utterance. (page 348)
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prosody
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The pattern of pauses and pitch changes that characterize speech production. It can be used (among other functions) to emphasize elements of a spoken sentence, to highlight the sentence’s intended structure, or to signal the difference between a question and an assertion. (page 350)
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pragmatics
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A term referring to knowledge of how language is ordinarily used, knowledge (for example) that tells most English speakers that “Can you pass me the salt?” is actually a request for the salt, not an inquiry about someone’s arm strength. (page 350)
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Broca’s area
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An area in the left frontal lobe of the brain; damage here typically causes nonfluent aphasia. (page 351)
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nonfluent aphasia
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A disruption of language, caused by brain damage, in which someone loses the ability to speak or write with any fluency. (page 351)
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Wernicke’s area
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An area in the left frontal lobe of the brain; damage here typically causes fluent aphasia. (page 351)
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fluent aphasia
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A disruption of language, caused by brain damage, in which afflicted individuals are able to produce speech but the speech is not meaningful, and the individuals are not able to understand what is said to them. (page 351)
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specific language impairment
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A syndrome in which individuals seem to have normal intelligence but problems in learning the rules of language. (page 353)
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overregularization error
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An error in which someone perceives or remembers a word or event as being closer to the “norm” than it really is. For example, misspelled words are read as though they were spelled correctly; atypical events are misremembered in a fashion that brings them closer to more-typical events; words with an irregular past tense (such as “ran”) are replaced with a regular past tense (“runned”). (page 354)
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semantic bootstrapping
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An important process in language learning in which someone (usually a child) uses knowledge of semantic relationships as a basis for figuring out the syntax of the language. (page 355)
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linguistic relativity
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The proposal that the language that we speak shapes our thought, because the structure and vocabulary of our language create certain ways of thinking about the world. (page 356)
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pragmatic reasoning schema
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A collection of rules, derived from ordinary practical experience, that defines what inferences are appropriate in a specific situation. These are usually defined in terms of a goal or theme, so one defines the rules appropriate for reasoning about situations involving “permission,” and a different one defines the rules appropriate for thinking about situations involving cause-and-effect relations. (page 350)
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self-report data
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A form of evidence in which the person is asked directly about his or her own thoughts or experiences. (page 365)
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image-scanning procedure
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An experimental procedure in which participants are asked to form a specific mental image and then are asked to scan, with their “mind’s eye,” from one point in the image to another. By timing these scans, the experimenter can determine how long “travel” takes across a mental image. (page 368)
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mental rotation
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A process that participants seem to use in comparing one imagined form to another. To make the comparison, participants seem to imagine one form rotating into alignment with the other, so that the forms can be compared. (page 370)
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demand character
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Cues within an experiment that signal to the participant how he or she is “supposed to” respond. (page 372)
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functional equivalence
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A series of close parallels in how two systems work—how they respond to inputs, what errors they make, and so on. An example is that between vision and visual imagery. (page 376)
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visual acuity
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A measure of your ability to see fine detail. (page 376)
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percept
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An internal representation of the world that results from perceiving; they are organized depictions. (page 383)
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image file
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Visual information stored in long-term memory, specifying what a particular object or shape looks like. Information within it can then be used as a “recipe” or set of instructions for how to construct an active image of this object or shape. (page 386)
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dual-coding theory
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A theory that imaginable materials, such as high-imagery words, will be doubly represented in memory: The word itself will be remembered, and so will the corresponding mental image. (page 390)
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boundary extension
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A tendency for people to remember pictures as being less “zoomed in” (and thus having wider boundaries) than they actually were. (page 391)
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attribute substitution
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A commonly used strategy in which someone needs one type of information but relies instead on a more-accessible form of information. This strategy works well if the more-accessible form of information is, in fact, well correlated with the desired information. An example is the case in which someone needs information about how frequent an event is in the world and relies instead on how easily he or she can think of examples of the event. (page 401)
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availability heuristic
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A strategy used to judge the frequency of a certain type of object or the likelihood of a certain type of event. The first step is to assess the ease with which examples of the object or event come to mind; this “availability” of examples is then used as an index of frequency or likelihood. (page 401)
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representativeness heuristic
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A strategy often used in making judgments about categories. This strategy is broadly equivalent to making the assumption that in general, the instances of a category will resemble the prototype for that category and, likewise, that the prototype resembles each instance. (page 402)
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covariation
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A relationship between two variables such that the presence (or magnitude) of one variable can be predicted from the presence (or magnitude) of the other. It can be positive or negative. If positive, then increases in one variable occur when increases in the other occur. If negative, then decreases in one variable occur when decreases in the other occur. (page 407)
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confirmation bias
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A family of effects in which people seem more sensitive to evidence that confirms their beliefs than they are to evidence that challenges their beliefs. Thus, if people are given a choice about what sort of information they would like in order to evaluate their beliefs, they request information that is likely to confirm their beliefs. Likewise, if they are presented with both confirming and disconfirming evidence, they are more likely to pay attention to, be influenced by, and remember the confirming evidence, rather than the disconfirming. (page 409)
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base-rate information
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Information about the broad likelihood of a particular type of event (also referred to as “prior probability”). Often contrasted with diagnostic information. (page 409)
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dual-process model
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Any model of thinking that claims people have two distinct means of making judgments—one of which is fast, efficient, but prone to error, and one that is slower, more effortful, but also more accurate. (page 413)
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System 1
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A commonly used name for judgment and reasoning strategies that are fast and effortless, but prone to error. (page 413)
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System 2
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A commonly used name for judgment and reasoning strategies that are slower and require more effort, but are less prone to error. (page 413)
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induction
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A pattern of reasoning in which you seek to draw general claims from specific bits of evidence. (page 419)
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deduction
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A process through which you start with claims, or general assertions, and ask what further claims necessarily follow from these premises. (page 419)
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belief perseverance
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A tendency to continue endorsing some assertion or claim, even when the clearly available evidence completely undermines that claim. (page 422)
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categorical syllogism
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A logical argument containing two premises and a conclusion, and concerned with the properties of, and relations between, categories. An example is, “All trees are plants. All plants require nourishment. Therefore, all trees require nourishment.” This is a valid kind, since the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. (page 424)
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premise
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A proposition that is assumed to be true in a logic problem; the problem asks what conclusion follows from these. (page 424)
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valid syllogism
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A syllogism for which the conclusion follows from the premise, in accord with the rules of logic. (page 424)
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invalid syllogism
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A syllogism (such as a categorical syllogism, or a syllogism built on a conditional) in which the conclusion is not logically demanded by the premises. (page 424)
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belief bias
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A tendency, within logical reasoning, to endorse a conclusion if the conclusion happens to be something one believes is true anyhow. In displaying this tendency, people seem to ignore both the premises of the logical argument and logic itself, and they rely instead on their broader pattern of beliefs about what is true and what is not. (page 425)
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conditional statement
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A statement of the format “If X then Y,” with the first part (the “if” clause, or antecedent) provides a condition under which the second part (the “then” clause, or consequent) is guaranteed to be true. (page 426)
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selection task
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An experimental procedure, commonly used to study reasoning, in which a person is presented with four cards with certain information on either side of the card. The person is also given a rule that may describe the cards, and the person’s task is to decide which cards must be turned over to find out if the rule describes the cards or not. Also called the “four-card task.” (page 427)
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four-card task
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See selection task. (page 427)
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subjective utility
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A measure of how valuable a state of affairs would be for you. This notion is central to “utility theory” accounts of decision making, on the idea that you try to select the option that will lead to the greatest _____. (page 430)
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expected value
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An estimate of the subjective gain that will result from choosing a particular option. It is calculated as the likely value of the consequences of that option, if these are obtained, multiplied by the probability of gaining those consequences.
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frame
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Aspects of how a decision is phrased that are, in fact, irrelevant to the decision but that influence people’s choices nonetheless. (page 432)
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risk seeking
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A tendency toward seeking out risk. People tend to be this way when contemplating losses, because they are willing to gamble in hopes of avoiding (or diminishing) their losses. (page 433)
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risk aversion
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A tendency toward avoiding risk. People tend to be this way when contemplating gains, choosing instead to hold tight to what they already have. (page 433)
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reason-based choice
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A proposal for how people make decisions. The central idea is that people make a choice when—and only when—they detect what they believe to be a persuasive reason for making that choice. (page 435)
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somatic markers
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States of the body used in decision making. For example, a tight stomach and an accelerated heart rate when someone is thinking about an option can signal to the person that the option has risk associated with it. (page 438)
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affective forecasting
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The process of predicting how you will feel at some future point about an object or state of affairs. It turns out that people are surprisingly inaccurate in these predictions and (for example) understate their own capacity to adapt to changes. (page 439)