Test 2 World Literature – Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Alice Rees
Old Chief Mshlanga- Author
Doris Lessing
Dorris Lessing – Biography -arab
wrote Old Chief Mshlanga, Nobel prize 2007, born in persia, dad was a struggling banker who was disabled in WWI , moved to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1925, unprosperous family farm, went to school with other children of white settlers in convent schools, communist from 1952-1956, quits party in ’56 and becomes a “prohibited alien” in Rhodesia and South Africa. culture conflict. social awareness (of Rhodesia). british parents. realisitic stories She writes about the Golden Notebook
Old Chief Mshlanga Main Points/Quotes
“to take them for granted the servants in the house would come running a hundred yards to pick up a book if she dropped it”
” black mass, mingling and thinning and massing like tadpoles, faceless, who existed merely to serve and say Yes Baas”
“Because of them she never felt fear”
“set the dogs on him and watch him run”
” I learned that the path up the side of the big red field was recognized for migrants”
“i was bred here; it was my country as well as the black man;s country and there is plenty of room for all of us without elbowing each other”
” three natives: cook, houseboy, garden boy”
What made the girl not fear anything in Old Chief Mschlanga
guns and dogs
Importance of Opening in Old Chief Mshlanga
opening –> vast division in the way she views things, “sightless for anything except books…”, is mean to natives, astounded by a native she meets who has dignity and is important (Mshlanga). one-side perception which brings her no closer ro tribe. chief did not step to the side of the road for her. Mshlanga’s son works for her parents in the kitchen. “You walk here as a destroyer.” Chief’s goats ruined her dads farmland and they fight over 20 goats
Themes of Old Chief Mshlanga – Africa*
Theme really focuses on Justice that happens: the struggle between the natives against the colonizers and men.
Theme also focuses on fear with the young girl.
Mshlanga was moved to a native reserve
The Guest- Author
Albert Camus
Albert Camus – Biography – Arab
Wrote the Guest, Born in Algeria in 1913, How do we live in an oppressive world, but not be opressive? Algeria – french colony, journalist who fought with french in WWII, Camus’ father died in WWI. raised by strict grandmother. Communist Labor Theatre. died car accident after won Nobel Prize. opposed Algerian independence. rebel. colonial context: Algeria run by France. mythical dimension. Grew up incredibly poor , noted for his existentialist writing and philosophy – his philosophy claims that man’s existence is primary importance. ABSURD word used to describe him
The Guest- Main points/ Quotes
“on the blackboard the four rivers of france, drawn with four different colored chalk”
“with fair weather the students would return”
Main character is Daru
“It would be hard to forget that poverty, that army of ragged ghosts wandering int he sunlight”
Horseman is Balducci, arab is being taken to the schoolmasters house
Arab man killed his cousin with a billhook, like a sheep
cooked cake
“men who share the same rooms, soldiers or prisoers, devlope a strange alliance”
“that man’s stupid crime revolted him, but to hand him over was contrary to honor”
“behind him on the blackboard amond the winding french rivers sprawled the clumsily chalked up words he had read “you just handed over our brother, you will pay for this
The Guest- Literary Elements
existentialism – ones ethical choices are the only source of meaning; do the choices we make daily make us a better person? guest vs.host? We act as the guests, and in the guest we are the colonial administrators, also considered a kind of tourist.
Chike’s School Days- Author
Chinua Achebe
Chinua Achebe- Biography- Africa
Odigi, Nigeria, Africa.dual perspectives, crossroad of culture.when he read books he identified with the white man – Africans painted as savages. examines cultural dilemmas in Nigeria; wrote Things Fall Apart; in college, stopped going by Albert; an Igbo, so had to flee Nigeria when non-Igbos took power Born in 1930 Best African writer Today Nigerian Chinua Achebe “i did not see myself as an African in those books”
books translated into 9 languages
wrote Arrow of God Voice of Nigeria
“no government, black or white, has the right to stigmatize and destroy groups of its own citizens wihtout undermining the basis of its own existence”
wrote short stories of girls at war , Education of a British protected Child
Chike’s School Days- overal points
written year of nigerian independence. Osu=lowest class caste. Chike’s father not oritiganlly, but married an Osu woman in the name of Christianity. put in school. loves words.published in the year of Nigerian independence
story of a child with a dual inherticance like Achebe’s own- Christian school Igbo vocabularyAchebe diverse society
“begins as an adventure in self discovery and ends in wisdom and human conscience”
Chike’s School Days quotes
“the child received three names at his baptism, John, Chike, Obiajulu” – chike was an only son
“The only person who supported Aos in his mad marriage venture was Mr. Brown, the white missionary, who lived in a ….highly respected because of a dispensary he ran in one of his rooms”
“this diviner was a man of great power… sat on the floow of his hut beating a tortoise shell a coatig of white chalk around his yes “the man of four eyes”
Chike’s school days
“will not eat heathen food” –> this causes problems for the mom becuase they are the lowest caste system
Our Earth Will Not Die, Ambiguous Legacy, The Word Is an Egg, People Are My Clothes, A Modest Question, Berlin 1884/5, Some Days, Day of the Cat – Author
Niyi Osundare –> Osundare E for Egg
Niyi Osundare- Africa
The word is an Egg from Yoruba speaking region of western nigeria; son of the land, as his father was a cocoa farmer and mother was a weaver; first intro to lit from dad through the songs he heard him sing as a child (African literature came from an oral tradition); british edu, university of ibadan, university of Leeds, university of toronto, now in New Orleans, poems are earthy, deeply human, connected to the land and the people, in spiritual and inventively linguistic way.
Our Earth Will not Die
“Our Earth Will Not Die” –give human qualities to things. oral tradition. homophones ; “Ambiguous Legacy” — used the language of the empire, primary address to the “gift of the english tongue”, also recognizes that that same tongue has been the destroyer, iambic pentameter, lines 9 & 10 contrast Africa and England; theme of divided allegience. “The World Is an Egg” — when you speak its like cracking an egg, it cant be undone.”People are my clothes” –the “we” is priveleged over the “I”, the community is the entity that one owes everyone. “A Modest Question” — indebted to nature; “Berlin 1884/5” — evokes violence that accompanies colonization and separation of land. “Some Days” — some days are good, some days are not afraid of being human. “Day of the Cat” — ;
Our Earth Will not Die- Osundare
“lake is killed by the arsenic urine”
“prifit factories” but our earth will not die
“ambiguous Legacy” – Osundare
“maple laughs in English Accent”
“purple scar” communism
“to borrow the tongue that Shakespeare spake”
The Word is an Egg- Osundare
tongue is pink fire
People are my clothes- Osundare
lots of siblings, I am a seminal drop in the bowl of the sea
Let people be my robe, people are my clothes, not for me the porcupone
Modest Question-Osundare
The grass is busy growin in teh fields- loom is a factory of limbs
Berlin 1844-Osundare
come buy history
Some days
auricles are acres of clay
Day of the cat
“i smell therefore iI know” rene descartes I think therefore I am
Wedding at the cross – author -Africa
Ngugi wa thiongo –> Africa
Ngugi wa thiongo- Africa
Wedding at the cross , , Kenyan; at middle age stopped writing in English, started writing in Kikuyu; stepbrother killed and mom tortured in Mau Mau uprising; in prison for 2nd time, wrote first full length novel in Kikuyu on toilet paper imprisoned for his criticisms of Kenyan regime in 1970s
first play is the black hermid
was a christian for breif period
radical theory Karl Marx and Franktz Fanon and Soviet Union, 1977 Petals of blood. Last english and most explicitly political novel He was refused employment as a professor and eventually reprisoned
Wedding at the cross main points
Miriamu and Wariuki love story. successful timber merchant and she was an obedient wife he marrierd her poor
“with the left trouser leg deliberately split along the seam to inch above the knee, always attracted approving eyes and sighs from maids in the crow thats how he caputre Miriamus heart milkman on a bike
Wariuki dumped all the way with his mother and disappeared and now he was in prison.
her parents had disowned her and she was helpless
wariuki had one obsession to erase the memory of that interview, to lay for ever the ghost of those contemtuous eyes.
was he born into bad luch, he was then unemplyed
she doesnt marry livingstone
two sisters- Author
Ama Ata Aidoo
Ama Ata Aidoo- Africa
Ghana Africa- rapidly changing the of women in africa , specific conditions of the sexual revolution and feminism in African culture.
born a chiefs daughter Dilemma of a ghost
“I didnt know that as a woman I wasnt supposed to write” Our sister Killjoy
inciting black students to rebel against “soul destroying white capitalism”
Two Sisters Main points
uses the two main characters to portray the central tensions that interest Aidoo: the conflicts between traditional sexual mores and sexual liberation between private life and political conflict; between past and present
Connie and Mercy are the sisters, connie is traditional and Mercy profits from from powerful men.
Mercy visits the seashore with her boyfriend the narrator personifies the gulf of Ginea as a god who looks with compassion on Mercys folly.
Two sisters Quotes
Went to see a movie with Mensar Arthur
Mensar Arthur gave her shoes and a handbag.
I have told my sister about you
Gulf personified as god Connie thinks her husband is having an affair
captain ashley
The deep river- Author
Bessie Head, Southern Africa
Bessie Head
The deep river, mytha nd oral ental illness born in a mental asylum , adopted biracial, Hinduism, Moved by ghandi, Negritude and Pan Africanist movements, started the Citizen noewspaper
When the RAin clouds gather, bi-polar and SCHIZOPHRENIA died at age 48 from a drinking coma, “building a stairway to the stars”
The deep river main points
a traditional tale about Botswanan ethnic group conflicts between an imagined communal past and pull of modern individuality , deep river of the people individuals had no identity apart from the group and a present defined
Rankwana, youngest wife
The deep river quotes
hero renounce power to be with the woman he loves
“they had no authority to plow wihtout the chief’s orders”
corn was their main crop
“the corn is to be cooked now” , the beer is to be brough now
celebration of thanksgiving
Monemapee died just walking on his own feet
“a man influenced y a woman is no ruler” Sebembele torn between the demands of his position and teh strain of a love affair
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
Aime Cesaire
Aime Cesaire-
Poet of Black Disaspora, “blackness” Surrealism, elected mayor of Fort de france From Martinique- a french carribbean island. Slavery resonated in the society there. He and Leopold Senghor worked together to create the “blackness” movement of negritude. Cesaire encountered a new and positive image of himself as a black person. Also involved in Harlem Renaissance and surrealism
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
1936, “the greatest lyrical monument of the age” Big story; trying to make a different in cultural and personal identity. Little stories: idea of disease and aging- uses elevated medical language to describe certain diseases. Man on the bus is “comical and ugly” — clash of identity going on . The narrator has betrayed a man of African descendent– ladies sneering at him. His family story: six brothers and sisters in a “cruel little house” with his temperamental father, and his tired mother who works effortlessly sewing to help feed the starving family. Cultural statement: the male isn’t up for the task but the mother will do whatever she can to help her family survive. The grandmother: above her bed she has an oil lit lamp and on the jar it says “merci” — a woman who has less than nothing, but she still feels inspired to thank God for what she has — testament to faith. The spectator: all of this suffering isn’t for your entertainment; it’s supposed to work in some other way. Vulgar language towards blacks gives us a sense of the way people were viewed and treated at the time– the violence of it all. Tone of voice: disgust, anger, rage. . Imagery of the middle passage- used to invoke this journey- part of the journey is the journey of forgetting your roots and heritage that you leave behind in Africa
Notebook of a return to the Native Land – themes
negritude: black-pride movement in which this redefines “blackness” as beautiful– at the time it wasn’t seen in this way as beautiful. Other themes: to shed adopted notions of blackness, to exhibit the ridiculousness of accepted truths, to discover a means of confronting the useless and stagnant and the means of making compliant, critique of reason, to write history of negritude as action and fierce determination, pride instead of the romance of nature and identity, to exhibit the power of language
The Doum Tree of Wad Hamid – Author
Tayeb Salih
Tayeb Salih- arabic
Salih exposes the fault lines in the formation of cultural identity, hiding complex ironies under the simple surface of folktakes
grew up near the Nile most famous work Season of Migration to the North. –> criticized as pornographic,
town of Marawi- nile flows east to west; sent away from home for schooling at age 10; went to U of London, made living as a broadcaster; worked for BBC, Ministry of Info of Qatar, UNESCO in Paris; wrote a column, Al Majalla, for an Arab Language paper.
The Doum Tree of Wad Hamid
established in Fictional town of Wad Hamid, relationship of the village to successive waves of modernizing governments. addresses the listener as my son, any reader could be the listener
The Doum Tree of Wad Hamid- Quotes
compares sand flies to savage flies, horseflies killing people depending on the season, the doum tree, compares to a mythical eagle, man tried to cut tree down to put a pump for the city, the tree stayed,
no one planted the tree, breed donkeys
“every village in this country there is some monument like the doum tree of Wad Hamid which people see in their dreams.
“there is lenty of room for the water pum, steamer, and the tomb”
Zabalawi- Author
Naguib Mahfouz
Nagiub Mahfouz- North Africa and Arab world
stabbed in neck b/c he portrayed God. Eygpt. Nobel Prize 1988. classic stories in contemporary ways, Egyptian, European Realism, Without him turbulant history of Egypt would not be known, Cairo, youngest of 7 children, Mahfouz’s masterwork is in The Cairo Triology “Balzac of Egypt”
Zaabalawi –> Main points
Narrarator has a sickness, and is in search of Sheikh Zaabalawi who he knows about from a poem from his child hood. Zaabalawi is supposed to be able to cure him, but he can’t find him anywhere. Everyone he talks to knows who Zaabalawi is, but says how he is always moving, and don’t know where he is. Goes to one of Zaabalawi’s known hangouts, talks with a guy named Wanas who will only talk to him while drunk. Narrarator passes out, and then when wakes up to find that Zaabalawi had come by. Mad that he missed him, vows to keep searching for him.
“I became afflicted with that illness for which no one possesses a remedy”
“his acquaintance at the house of Shiekh Qamar, one of those sheiks who practiced law in the religious courts ” room smelled of perfume”
“God rest his soul, he was a fine man” Sheikh gave him a map, calligrapher and him are friends Hassanein, calligrapher makes beautiful writing and decorates signs etc. ALLAH, GOD , vendor of beans, , Gad, composer,
Zabalawi Main points part 2
“so my visit has been in vain”
“God forgive you, for saying such a thing of a visit that has cuasd me to know you and you me”
“this extraordinary man brings fatigue to all who seek him”
Mr Wanas Hardened drinker,
“dreamed taht i was in an immense garden surrounded on all sides by luxuriant trees
“there was an extraordinary sense of harmony between me and my inner self”
“playig with a string of jasmine petals”
“Yes, I have to fnd Zaabalawi”
In Camera- Author
Nawal El Saadawi
Nawal el Saadawi – Egyptian
born a female in a world that wanted only males , middle class family with strong connections to the ruling elite of the country aristocracy and father government functionary , practice of female circumcision, Writes about how gender discrimination limits the opportunities of women in the Arab world. Her father was a government functionary. She studied medicine and held a government position for a short while. She was imprisoned for three months during the campaign of repression against intellectuals which inspired her to wrote some of her previous works. She also founded an organization to educate people about women’s issues- the AWSA
Nawal el Saadawi Main points
women is imprisoned for speaking out against government. Because she is a women she is raped, abused and neglected. Takes place in a court room where she discusses how she has no rights and the terrible things she has gone through. ALso discusses how corrupt the government is, and how it had been her first time in a court room. Thinks back, and imagines her father and mother and sibilings in the courtroom speaking up for her. Although they are not, someone is, and they speak up for her, but in the end, she is sent back to where she came from, in darkness. ” like an animal”
Identity Card Author
Mahmound Darish
Mahmound Darish
Identity Card PALESTINE; Influenced by Yehuda Amichai. Identity card is one of the early poems off Darwish One of preeminent forces of Palestinian life. Born in a little village Birweh near Haifa in Palestinethat then became contestant sites. given status of present absentees. Not been there at the right time. wrote first volume of poetry at 19. 1988 authored Palestinian Dec. of Ind. Resigned PLO when had oslo peace accords. Placed under house arrest by israeli government during mid-60s, went to moscow, then paris. (1941-2008)
“I have become addicted to exile my language is exile, the metaphor for Palestine is stronger than the palestine of reality” died in Houston Texas heart complications.
Identity Card- Main points
exile and the restriction on the movements of Palestinians, “I am a name without a family name” undercurrent of rebellion
“whats there to be angry about” sarcasm- name without a title, roots have been there forever
God Has pity on Kindergarden Children –> an Arab Shepherd is Searching for his goat on Mt. Zion Author
Yehuda Amichai —
Yehuda Amichai
ISRAELI; Gives interesting history of Hebrew language, Hebrew underwent a shift in part due to his poetry and to the founding of the state of Israel. Born “Ludwig Pfueffer” in Wurzburg Germany in 1924, but emigrated to palestine in 1936. Served in four armed conflicts: WWII, 1948 Israeli War of Independence, the Arab-Israeli War, and the October War, over 30 years of fighting as member of Isralie forces ISRAEL– state founded in 1948, 42% of world’s jews live in Israel, contains sacred religious sites, collision of Zionist (Jewish) and muslim nat’l movements combined with a widespread fear of Western colonialist influence on the part of Israel’s neighbots ontributed to an atmosphere of conflic that has characterized the state of israel’s history. His stories are included in school anthologies
JERUSALEM – interesting commentary on flags banners, items of national identification. TOURISTS – anti-tourist poem, redemption will come only when they are told. Whats important isnt ancient monuments, but the people who live today. the tourists a crying for things they don’t understand. life is more importan than that thing/that object. its impossible to be a tourist in a war zone. “We need to stop talking about architecture and territory, and start talking about people.” we have to think about who is saying whatand what they already have/don’t have. )
An Arab Shepherd
people are people, regardless of titles Arab shepherd and Jewish father
The Road to Salvation- Author
The Road to Salvation , Urdu and Hindi PAKISTANI AND INDIAN; 1880-1936; became a nationally celebrated writer in both hindi and Urdu and in both India and Pakistan over a short period of time, born under british rule in Lamahai Village near Banaras on the River Ganges, censored british ruler because he was apart of the anti-british movement, man of letters, revolutionary, birth of 2 nations and 2 literatures. wrote 2 nat’l anthems Premchand is a pseudonym
He remarried which is unheard of!!! wrote more than 190 short stories “things as they are, idealistic realism”
The road to salvation – main points
jinghur (cockroach) and buddhu (fool); cycle of revenge. Buddhu drives sheep over J’s field, ruining his crops. J beats B’s sheep. B burns sugar cane; makes whole village impoverished, dogs die. back and forth and then finally they admit to what they’ve done and laugh. you are born into the caste system. cycle ends when the two men are impoverished and neither have anything else to lose. “goddesses of wisdom and wealth can not live in same house” –>
The road to salvation quotes
Ironical elements, the title of the story being salvation, village fighting fire, and he started it, buddu started fire but jinghr gets blammed, “I wouldnt settle for anything less than burning down his house”
Lakshmi goddess of wealth
The Black Shalwar Main points
Sultana had a fluorishing business as a prostitute before going to Delhi. She had many clients who were British soldiers– they would come to her when drunk and often. she could “entertain” them for a few hours and make enough money to live. In Delhi, she had not seen any white clients and was disappointed by the little amount of money she was making. One client gave her the king’s new eight anna coin and she found no use from it. One day she is using the bathroom and pulls on something (to flush the toilet but she didn’t know what it was) and the flushing noise scares her– she screams– Khuda Baksh comes running in to see why someone was screaming and laughs when he finds out she was scared of the toilet flushing. The two end up living together. Sultana’s business starts to fluorish, believes Baksh was the reason she had good fortune. Khuda buys a camera and starts his own business and it becomes very successful. Sultana bought earrings, bangles, saris and had her home furnished. Suddenly, Khuda Baksh wants to move to Delhi, so Sultana accompanies him because she thinks he brings her good fortune and because she was a devotee to a saint there. Sultana begins to worry when she isn’t getting any clients for a few months. She is moved by the sight of trains. Moharram– sacred Islamic month– she wants black clothes since that is traditional for this month, but cannot afford any. Meets a man named shankar (who we can assume is a male prostitute) He visits her and he says he will get a black shalwar (kind of islamic clothing) to her by the first day of Moharram and she gives him her silver earrings in exchange. He gets her the black shalwar and she sees her friend from the building wearing her silver earrings.
The black Shalwar- Author
Saadat Hasan Manto
toba Tek Singh- Author
Saadat Hasan Manto
Saadat Hasan Manto- Biography
born in 1911 near Ludhiana in Punjab, family settled in Amritsar (near india-pakistan border) unsuccessful student, lived in political turmoil, informally joined a local socialist group that greatly influenced his writing, worked for a magazine in Lahore, moved to bombay in 1936, went back to Lahore when things got bad but witnessed so much hatred and fighting – epitaph for himself combination of sadonic humor and irony he failed high school Bagh Massacre, died of alcoholism 44. 250 short stories
Toba Tak Singh Main points
most of the distinctive features of his style ad his most urgent themes. Surreal blurring of reason and unreason, focus on the rich diversity of human perspectives , inmates of lunatic asylums should be exchanged.
The Black Shalwar
Sultana main character, allotted flats to prositutes, landry wallah put up a sign saying “dirty clothes washed here” , Coal Shop board, opened her own shop, no customers in 2 months, conclude that it is becuase of the war, 18 rupes and 8 annas Sultanas shop doesnt make it and she starts to go mad. She envisions the wheels on trains as reminding her of the rich businessmen who came to her. She lets a man in Shankar, relates herself to a doctor,
and then she gets the black shawl back and he kept his promise
Giribala – Author
Mahasweta Devi
Mahasweta Devi
bengali Indian, subaltern studies, rigorous documentation of the lives of the poewrless and the critical examination of how and why society marginalizes them. glandular tuberculosis, due to malnutrition divorced, politically active on behalf of indigenous peoples of india through her “documentary ficiton”, mahasweta’s prodigeos literary output is which in order to support her political activismdocumentary fiction, real history is made by ordinary people
Giribala- main points
rural life, West Bengal vulnerable girl barely past puberty, arranged marriage when she is 13 but does not properly investigate the groom. Auchland. addicted to ganja, as 3 daughters and a son Giribala resonds without regard to consequence. Giribala is sold by her father into a scam. The man she is sold to was a set up, and has done this many times before just to take the money. She does not have a real home or family, is very upset with her life. She has children and then the same thing is done to her daughter, she is sold, but into sex trafficing and she has no idea where she had gone. Her husband had done this without her permission while she had gone to visit her parents with her other children. It is a never ending cycle, she is living in.- in the end she decides to take the children she has left and leave her husband and the town and start fresh, although no woman has ever done so. She knows its the only way she can continue living.
Giribala- main points and quotes
had lovely eyes, bride price,
“a daughter born, to husband or death, shes already gone” he ends up selling his second two daughters and giri ends up walking away with her last two children. she stands up for herself as much as possible and even bangs her head violently on her forehead.
One out of Many- Author
VS Naipaul
VS Naipaul
One out of Many born under british rule in Chaguanas, Trinidad, using an Oxford scholarship in ’49 to leave theisland; controversial public figure given to criticism of women writers and liberal politics; praised for his precise style and post?colonial vision, he was the 2001 winner of the noble prize for literature; He thinks people in africa are backwards, and if they adapted to western culture, they’d fair better in this world; has no respect for women writers; riled post-colonial criticshindu, lions den, Seepersad is the father, attempted suicide,
One out of Many- Main points
setting US E pluribus unum, main character santosh is just one of many immigrants in the US
He leaves his wife and children to DC his unofficial status and low pay seriously restrict his options hubshi , live then die rejects himself as an American sees him as an immigrant, and has sex with a black woman and cleanses himself with lemon, he is withPyria and at the end of the story is an American citizen
Midnight’s Children and preforated sheet- Author
Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
religious decree to murder Rushdie for his acts of blasphemy against islam Fatwa, lived underground for a decade, born wealthy muslim 1947; born in bombay, to a weatlthy muslim family just prior to partition; entered rugby in 1958, then studied islamic history at cambridge; subject of two fatwa (worldwide death warrant) in 1989 as a result of passages in the Satanic Verses (1988) felt to be offensive to muslim religious scruples; rushdie recanted in 1990 but later dismissed the episode in his interviews; often seen as a proponent of magical realism; did everything he could possibly do to make muslims mad;
The Perforated Sheet Main points
Saleem Sinai, Snotnose Stainface 7 in hole in his sheet, clutching at the dream compares it to his talisman moment he was born is the moment India gains its independence from britain
starts with story of grandfather adam aziz Adam’s prominent nose
Requiem- Author
Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova
Requiem, ex-husband, friends, and son all taken and died in prison. Sent son to prison because he had a mother who wrote controversial things. wasnt allowed to write in the 30-40s she was under constant scrutiny. committed poem to memory, then reassembled after the fall of stalin. samizdat press – underground bookstore russian niversal themes in terms of individual experience akhmatova is a pen name accent second syllable
Requiem main points
woman lost everything including her son because of the grief this regime put her in “Something that looked like a smile passed over what had once been her face.” empathy.Prison gates are immune to the things that mountains would bow down to. “but hope keeps singing from afar” idea about oral literature underground sitribution circut the new idea that dier days and verdict is cut off tries to make you lose hope
This way for the gas, ladies and gentleman – Author
tadesz borowski
Tadeusz Borowski
This way for the gas ladies and gentleman Auschwitz Birkenau suicide by gas at 28 literature of atrocity born polish catholic his father was sent to labor camp his mother was then deported took illegal underground calsses baudelaires speel
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