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Group theory midterm

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Which of the following is true of counseling groups?
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c: they focus on interpersonal relations among the members
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which of the following is not true of group counseling?
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d: it deals with treatment of psychotic discorders
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psychoeducational groups are designed to
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d: prevent an array of educational deficits and psychological problems
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how does group counseling differ from group therapy?
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d: all of the above (it deals primarily with conscious problems, it is not aimed at major personality changes, it is not concerned with treating psychotic disorders)
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which group work specialist is most likely to teach members to cope with an immediate life crisis or developmental life event, with the goal of preventing an array of educational and psychological disturbances?
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c: psychoeducational
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the group leadership skill of active listening includes all of the following except…
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b: the ability to formulate your next response while listening
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the group leadership skill of clarification involves which of the following?
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e: all of the above (focusing on key underlying issues, sorting out confused and conflicting feelings, asking open-ended questions in order to undersatnd what a group member is saying, a tool that can be valuable in the initial stages of an encounter)
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the group leadership skill of summarizing is useful…
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d: all of the above (when the group process gets bogged down, in arriving at a decision on where to go next, at the end of a session)
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which of the following are ways a group leader can make use of the skill of facilitating?
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e: a and b (working to create a climate of safety and acceptance, helping members express their fears and expectations)
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group leaders who use the skill of empathizing appropriately have a wide range of experiences that…
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a: help them identify with others
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the group leadership skill of interpreting involves all of the following except…
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c: discouraging members from making their own interpretations
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which of the following is true when the group leadership skill of questioning is used appropriately?
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e: b and c (“why” questions help a member experience intense feelings, questions that remove people from themselves are avoided)
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the use of support as a leadership skill is appropriate…
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e: all of the above (when a member is venturing into frightening territory, when a member is engaging in new behavior in a group, when a member asks for support, after a member has gone through an emotionally painful experience in a group)
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the group leadership skill of blocking should not be used when group members…
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e: begin to cry
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which of the following is considered an advantage of the co-leadership model?
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d: all of the above (leader burnout can be reduced, if one leader must be absent, the group can proceed with the other leader, countertransference can be more easily recognized and dealt with)
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which of the following co-leader actions could be potentially harmful for both the group members and the leaders?
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d: all of the above (not meeting together regularly, creating cliques, not trusting or respecting each other)
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when making difficult ethical decisions as a group leader, it is helpful to…
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e: all of the above (know the ethical codes of your professional organization, consult with colleagues, get supervision and training during the early stages of your development as a leader, base your practice on sound, informed, and responsible judgment)
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which of the following factors should be considered when deciding who is qualified to lead a particular group?
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e:a and c (the type of group, the limitations of the prospective leader)
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which of the following would not be a reason for encouraging prospective group leaders to have their own individual therapy?
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b: to meet state requirements for competency
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how can involvement in a therapeutic group as a member be helpful to beginning group leaders?
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d: all of the above (it is a more appropriate place to examine their own problems, they can empathize with what it is like to be a group member, it can serve as a valuable learning experience for understanding group process)
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which of the following would not be considered one of a group member’s rights?
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b: complete confidentiality
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which of the following is considered a psychological risk of participating in a therapeutic group?
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e: all of the above (confidentiality may be breached, scapegoating may occur, members may experience major disruptions in their lives, members may end up feeling vulnerable and defenseless)
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which of the following statements is not true as it pertains to the ethical issue of confidentiality?
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c: when confidentiality is broken it is invariable the result of malicious gossip
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which of the following are the most frequent causes of malpractice action against mental health professionals?
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d: all of the above (violating a client’s right to privacy, engaging in sexual relations with clients, causing physical injuries through use of group exercises)
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which of the following actions is/are important in helping a group leader avoid a malpractice suit?
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e: a and c (develop written informed-consent procedures at the outset of a group, avoid asking a member to leave the group and seek other forms of therapy, as this could be viewed as incompetence on the leader’s part)
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when using techniques in a group setting, it is important to remember that…
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b: they should be grounded in some theoretical framework
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which of the following statements is true concerning the role of leaders’ values in the group?
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c: expressed values are less likely to interfere with group process than values that are hidden)
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concerning a leader’s responsibility to secure informed consent of group members the ASGW’s best practice guidelines states that ll of the following information should be provided in writing except for information…
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d: regrading every technique that might be introduced
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according to the ASGW’s best practice guidelines states informed consent involves…
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e: all of the above (a professional disclosure statement, policies related to entering and exiting the group, documentation requirements, policies and procedures governing mandated groups)
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regarding the ethical issue of the freedom to withdraw from a group, which statement is false?
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c: it is the sole responsibility of the group leader to determine whether a group experience is productive or counterproductive for each group member
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which of the following captures the essence of informed consent?
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b: telling members in some detail about the nature and purpose of the group
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confidentiality in group is…
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c: limited by state laws
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what can safely be said on the issue of psychological risk in groups?
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b: since groups can be catalysts for change, they also involve risks
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regarding the ethical use of techniques, which statement is false?
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c: reluctant members should be pressured into participating in all group exercises for the sake of the cohesion of the group
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why is it helpful to begin planning a group by drafting a detailed proposal?
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d: all of the above (it is more likely that good ideas will be developed and put into practice, it is an excellent way to explain your proposed goals and methods to representatives of the agency you work for, it helps you develop a clear rationale and objectives)
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when attempting to organize and begin a group in an agency setting, it is important to…
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a: be aware of the politics involved in the setting which you work
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which of the following statements is not true in terms of recruiting group members?
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c: one of the best methods is the commercialized approach, as opposed to a professional approach
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the purpose of preliminary screening sessions with prospective group members is to select those who…
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d: all of the above (have needs and goals that are compatible with the established goals of the group, will not impede the group process, will not have their well-being jeopardized by the group experience.
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which of the following is not appropriate for the preliminary screening session?
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b: focusing the session only on the personal history of the applicant
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which of the following is true about holding a pre-group session for all candidates?
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e: all of the above (the leader can outline the reasons for the group, an outline of possible topics for exploration can be given, group members can meet one another and the leaders, questions about the group can be answered)
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certain types of members can sap a group’s energy for productive work. these include…
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e: a and c (hostile and aggressive people, people who monopolize
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prospective group members need to be given the following information about the group that they are thinking of joining:
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e: all of the above (goals, procedures, expected outcomes, fees and time parameters)
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which of the following is the best procedure to follow when informing a person that they have not been accepted as member in your group?
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b: discuss the reasons for this decision with the particular person, taking care to be honest and sensitive, and providing them with an appropriate referral
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which of the following statements is not true as it related to the composition of a group? (heterogeneous vs. homogeneous)
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a: personal growth groups tend to be homogeneous
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when looking at the practical aspects of forming a group, which of the following is least important to consider?
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d: conducting a survey of the research literature on group outcomes
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which of the following is not true concerning desirable size for a group?
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c: a group for elementary school children should consist of at least eight to ten members
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which of the following topics is appropriate for discussion at the pre-group or initial session of a new group?
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e: all of the above (expectations of leaders and members, basic ground rules, advantages and limitations of groups, misconceptions and facts about groups)
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which of the following statements is not true as it applies to confidentiality in groups?
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a: in order to create a climate of trust, the leader should emphasize that confidentiality within the group must be absolute, without any limitations
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which of the following is not considered an advantage of a therapeutic group over other intervention strategies?
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c: groups are suited for everyone
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which of the following is not listed as a misconception about groups?
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a: not all people are suited to groups
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which of the following is not considered as a main task of group leaders during the formation of a group?
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b: develop a wide array of group techniques that will be used for each of the sessions
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which of the following is not true about co-leader issues at the pre-group and planning stages?
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a: it is unnecessary to be in agreement concerning ethical aspects of group work
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which of the following is not supported by research on pre-group preparation?
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c: successful group preparation is based primarily on behavioral component (modeling)
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if the goal of a group is the simulation of everyday life, then it is a good idea to have…
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b: a heterogeneous group
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during a group’s initial phase, members can best build trust by…
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b: revealing their lack of trust
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when group members experience persistent feelings or thoughts pertaining to their here-and-now experience in the group, it is best that they…
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c: reveal these feelings or thoughts to others in the group
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which of the following statements is not true as it applies to resistance during the initial stage?
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a: resistance is generally not common during the initial stage of a group, since members are quite willing to get personally involved quickly
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which of the following statements is not true as it relates to the topic of self-disclosure?
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a: the most useful kind of self-disclosure is that which has been carefully thought out first
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certain attitudes and action of leaders enhance the level of trust in a group. which of the following factors is least related to developing this trust?
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b: direct and relentless confrontation of defenses
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which of the following statements is not true regarding ways group members can be encourages to get more out of their experience?
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b: wait until a group is in its later stages before you ask for time for yourself
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which of the following statements is true concerning the importance of teaching members about group process?
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e: a and c (if members are told too much of what to expect, there may be no spontaneous learning, there is a delicate balance between providing too much structuring and failing to give enough information)
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which of the following is not typical of the feelings, reactions, and behaviors of members who are in the initial stage of their group’s progress?
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b: a high degree of cohesiveness
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all of the following are statements about cohesion are true except…
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c: it can be increased by forcing all members to become active participants
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which of the following statements is/are true as they relate to the topic of group norms?
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d: all of the above (the establishment of norms is necessary for development of group cohesion, implicit norms may develop as a result of preconceived ideas about what takes place in a group, implicit norms may develop as a result of leader modeling)
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an example of a norm that is common to many groups is that members are…
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e: all of the above (expected to attend regularly and be on time, encouraged to be personal and share meaningful aspects of themselves, encouraged to give feedback to one another, encouraged to focus on and express feelings)
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it is important to maintain a here-and-now focus within the group because…
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d: all of the above (members will be able to see their interpersonal style as it unfolds in that context, conflicts within the group can be expressed and explored, nonverbalized thoughts and feelings can be detrimental to the group process)
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during the early stages of a group, the central process involves…
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c: orientation and exploration
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at the initial sessions of a group, it is common to see…
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e: a and b (tentativeness and lack of clarity)
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which of the following statements is true regarding expression of negative reactions during the early stages of a group?
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d: all of the above (the expression of these reactions should be encouraged, trust can be lost or gained by the way the leader handles the initial expression of these reactions, some members may express negative reactions over trivial matters)
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which of the following statements is not true as it applies to resistance in the early stages of a group?
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b: resistance that is related to cultural factors should never be challeneged
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which of the following leader attitudes and actions can lead to the development of trust?
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e: all of the above (attending and listening, caring confrontation, empathy, attending to nonverbal behavior)
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leaders and members demonstrate a lack of attention when they…
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e: a and c (think about what to say next, give advice)
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which of the following is/are behaviors that black empathy?
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a: telling others what they should feel
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the term that implies congruence between a person’s inner experience and what they project externally is…
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b: genuineness
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which of the following statements about confrontation in the group setting is not true?
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c: a caring confrontation involves attempting to protect a person’s feelings by sharing only a portion of your reaction to them
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the major task to be accomplished at the initial stages of a group’s development is…
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a: the development of trust
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which of the following statements is not true as it relates to the development of trust within groups?
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e: a and b (although trust is an important issue in the early stages of a group, it is not the major one, once trust is established, it is taken care of for the duration of the group)
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when helping group members to define their personal goals, it is important to remember that…
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d: all of the above (this should be done only during the initial stages of a group, members should not change or modify their goals during the course of their group, many people state their goals in broad terms initially)
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in the group context, contracts…
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d all of the above (help people achieve their personal goals, help members assume an active and responsible stance, can be renegotiated)
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when group leaders are opening a session, it is important for them to…
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e: b and c (link the coming session with the last one, give each member an opportunity to state what he or she wants from the upcoming session)
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which of the following is not helpful in closing group sessions?
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c: making sure everyone leaves the sessions feeling completely comfortable
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in terms of the division of responsibility, which of the following co-leadership situations might cause problems in the group context?
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b: co-leaders who have divergent views on the division of responsibility
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which of the following statements is not true as it relates to the structuring of group sessions by the leader?
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a: unstructured groups are best for low-functioning adult inpatient groups
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what has the research shown us about providing structure during the initial stages of a group?
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e: a and c (ambiguity in terms of goals, procedures, and norms increases members’ anxiety, frustration, and uninvolvement with the group, when the therapeutic process is structured to provide a framework for change, members tend to engage in therapeutic work more quickly)
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which of the following feelings and behaviors is/are characteristics of the transition stage of the group process?
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e: all of the above (challenged to the leader, resistance, anxiety, interpersonal conflict)
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during the transition stage, anxiety is…
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d: all of the above (high, the result of external factors, the result of internal factors)
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which of the following statements is not true concerning defensiveness and resistance during the transition stage?
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b: it is always counterproductive for group members to show resistance)
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which of the following fears can be at the root of resistant behavior?
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d: all of the above (fear of rejection, fear of self-disclosure, fear of emptiness)
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which of the following statements about conflict is false?
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a: it is to be avoided at all costs
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which of the following are helpful guidelines for appropriate and responsible confrontations?
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e: a and b (one purpose of confrontation is to develop more genuine relationships with others, sensitivity is an important element of confrontation)
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which of the following statements illustrates an ineffective confrontation?
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a: “you are a phony! you are always smiling and that’s not real”
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when a leader is experiencing strong feelings about what he or she perceives to be resistance, a powerful intervention is to…
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c: deal with his or her own feelings
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which of the following are reasons for nonparticipating behavior by a group member?
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d: all of the above (fear of looking foolish, lack of trust in the group, uncertainty about how the group process works)
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when a member is consistently silent during group sessions, it is best too…
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c: avoid attacking the person for his or her silence
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a member who monopolizes group time is…
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d: all of the above (exhibiting a high degree of self-centeredness, continually identifying with others, sometimes welcomes in the early stages of a group’s progress)
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the problem behavior of storytelling…
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e: a and b (involves relating a detailed history of one’s past, involves merely talking about oneself or others)
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the problem behavior of advice giving involves…
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c: telling people what they should feel and do
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band-aiding occurs when a group member…
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b: finds it too difficult to witness another’s pain
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the following behavior(s) could indicate underlying hostility
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d: all of the above (becoming bored, sarcasm, being overly polite)
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which of the following statements is not true about the problem behavior of dependency?
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a: dependent persons are helped by being given the pity they so desperately need)
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which of the following is a type of problem behavior sometimes manifested in the group context?
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e: all of the above (being excessively quiet, monopolizing, intellectualizing, emotionalizing)
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which of the following statements is not true regarding members’ socializing outside the group context?
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b: it should always be discouraged as counterproductive
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transference may be occurring when group member perceive the leader as…
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d: all of the above (an expert, a superperson, a friend)
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all of the following statements are true except…
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a: transference consists of the feelings that both client and therapist project onto each other
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when a group is in the transition stage of its development, it is helpful for co-leaders to…
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d: all of the above (avoid taking sides with each other in attacking members, both be willing to talk objectively in group about challenges from members, pay attention to their personal reactions to problematic member behaviors)
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what does research show about the importance of a positive therapist-client relationship?
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d: all of the above( group tension increases as the leader-member relationship becomes less favorable, the potential for therapeutic gain diminishes as the leader-member relationship becomes less favorable, group members benefit more from a positive style of intervention)
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which of the following statements is/are true about groups that never evolve to a true working level?
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d: all of the above (in an open group with changing membership, there may not be an opportunity to develop trust and cohesion, in a closed group where conflict management and dealing with resistance are not mastered, there may not be enough trust for members to reach this deeper level, individuals can benefit from a group even if it does not reach the working stage)
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which of the following is not usually a characteristic of the working stage?
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c: relatively few interpersonal conflicts and struggles
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which of the following is a characteristic of a working group?
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d: all of the above (a willingness to take risks by sharing meaningful here-and-now reactions, clear and specific goals, a sense of inclusion felt by most members)
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which of the following is not a characteristic of a working group?
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b: all members are equally ready and willing to work on intensely personal concerns
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all of the following are characteristics of the working stage except…
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a: members are encouraged to become more like each other in order to develop group cohesion
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which of the following is a characteristic of a nonworking group?
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d: all of the above (undercurrent of unexpressed hostility, general goals, formation of cliques)
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which of the following is a characteristic of a nonworking group?
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e: all of the above (a there-and-then focus, minimum disclosure, lack of caring and empathy, avoidance of conflicts and negative feelings)
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which of the following is a characteristic of a nonworking group?
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e: all of the above (members are unwilling to take action to change, feedback is rejected defensively, communication is indirect, members sometimes gang up on one person)
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all of the following are characteristics of a nonworking work except…
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b: members are interested in themselves and others
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which of the following is/are characteristics of an ineffective group member?
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d: all of the above (keeping all reservations and negative feelings hidden, rejecting the leader’s interventions, storytelling)
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an effective group member is characterized by…
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e: all of the above (an openness to change, having specific goals, a willingness to explore problems in the group, an ability to express fears and negative feelings)
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which of the following statements about group process is true?
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c: trust may need to be reestablished during the working stage
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the therapeutic factor that operates in groups when members believe that change is possible is known as…
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b: hope
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves a willingness to specify desired modifications of one’s behavior is…
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e: commitment to change
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves actively doing what is necessary for change is…
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d: willingness to risk and trust
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the therapeutic factor in groups that is demonstrated by the listening and involvement of others is…
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a: caring
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves affirming a person’s right to have his or her feelings and values is…
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b: acceptance
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves a deep understanding of another’s problems is…
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e: empathy
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the therapeutic factor in groups that leads to an increased sense of trust and a greater willingness to risk even more is…
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c: intimacy
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves the sense that one has the internal resources necessary to direct one’s life is…
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d: power
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the therapeutic factor in groups by which members let each other know how they are affected by their behavior in group is…
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a: feedback
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the therapeutic factor in groups that involves the release of pent-up feelings is…
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c: catharsis
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which of the following statements is not true concerning the place of humor in groups?
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a: group work is inherently serious and intense and leaves little place for humor
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which of the following therapeutic factors in groups is the means by which open communication occurs in the group?
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e: self-disclosure
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which of the following therapeutic factors much be present to prevent stagnation from occurring in the group?
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d: confrontation
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which of the following statements about member self-disclosure is inaccurate?
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b: true self-disclosure involves revealing ongoing persistent reactions, but not personal concerns
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in giving group members guidelines about self-disclosure, it would be inappropriate to suggest that they…
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c: rely solely on the leader’s suggestions as to how much they should reveal
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which of the following statements about leader self-disclosure is inaccurate?
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a: it is never theoretically appropriate for a leader to remain mysterious
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which of the following would not be an appropriate guideline for leader self-disclosure?
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e: group leaders should make frequent use of group time to explore their own problems
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which of the following is not typically a co-leadership issue at the working stage?
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b: bringing closure to the group’s expereince
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which of the following is/are true about research concerning the group process variable of cohesion?
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e: a and b (cohesion is a strong determinant of positive group outcome, groups with here-and-now focus are almost invariably vital and cohesive)
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which of the following statements has not been supported by research on self-disclosure?
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b: self-disclosure always has a constructive effect on group process and outcome
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all of the following statements are supported by research on feedback except…
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d: negative feedback seems more credible and helpful in the early phases of a group
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the major task of the final stage in a group’s development is…
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d: consolidation of learnings
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it is important for group leaders to recognize that the intensity of a group’s experience can taper off in the final sessions because….
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e: a and b (members may be mourning the loss of their community in advance, members are reluctant to bring up new business to explore due to the limited time left)
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the tasks to be accomplished when adding new member to an already existing group include all of the following except…
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c: allowing the new member to discover for himself or herself the group norms
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when a member wants to leave a group prematurely, it is important for the leader to…
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e: a and c (discuss all the ramifications of this action with them, provide departing members with alternative sources of further help)
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in helping group members deal with their feelings of separation, it is important for the leader to…
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d: all of the above (remind them they can create meaningful relationships outside the group setting, facilitate open discussion of feelings of loss and sadness, be able to deal with his or her own feelings about the termination of the group)
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which of the following statements is true about dealing with unfinished business in the final phase of a group?
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e: all of the above (members can be given the opportunity to identify what else they can do before the final session, as much as possible, unfinished business needs to be expressed and worked through, members should be encouraged to discuss issues they have with each other, members should be encouraged to decide what they will do with some of their unfinished business)
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which of the following are ways group members can be encourages to practice for behavioral change?
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d: all of the above (carrying out homework assignments and giving a report of their experiences, role-playing during the group session, learning and practicing specific skills)
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which of the following is an example of global feedback that is of little use to group members?
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a: “you are a super person and very easy to like”
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which of the following are ways group member can be encourage to carry their learning further?
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e: b and c (the leader discussed available programs in the community, the leader gives appropriate referrals)
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which of the following can be considered advantages of having a follow-up session about three to six months after termination of a group?
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d: all of the above (it can be a valuable accountability measure, members are apt to be more motivated to take steps to make changes, the leader can evaluate the degree of effectiveness of the group)
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which stage is characterized by dealing with conflict, defensiveness, and resistance?
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b: transition
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which stage is most clearly associated with dealing with personal issues and translating insight into action both in the group and outside it?
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d: working
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which stage has the focus of applying what has been learned in the group and putting it to use in everyday life?
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b: final
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most writers agree that the foundation of the group is…
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d: trust
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inclusion and identity are the primary tasks of which stage of a group?
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a: initial
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teaching participants some general guidelines of group functioning, developing group norms, and assisting members to express their fears and expectations are all group leadership functions during the…
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c: initial stage
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which stage is generally characterized by increased anxiety and defensiveness?
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b: transition
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cohesion and productivity are most closely associate with the…
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a: working stage
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conflict and struggle for control are most likely to appear in the…
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b: transition stage:
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resistance in a group can be seen as…
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e: a and b (inevitable, potential material for productive exploration)
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the process that occurs when the leader’s own needs become so entangles in the therapeutic relationship that these needs obstruct of even destroy the leader’s objectivity is known as…
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c: countertransference