TEST 2 GOVERNMENT

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
The Federal system can be best described as
a. a system of government where member nations meet in a multinational conference.
b. a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government.
c. a system in which the power of the central government is funded through taxation of the local government. d. the sharing of legislative powers between an upper and lower house.
e. a system where governmental authority is divided into separate branches and each branch is given some power over the other branches.
B
The specific powers granted to Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution are called the ________ powers.
a. implied d. executive b. expressed e. absolute c. sovereign
B
A definitive role for the states in the American federal republic was preserved by the ________ Amendment. a. First d. Tenth
b. Fifth e. Sixteenth
c. Ninth
D
The full faith and credit clause of the Constitution requires
a. the federal government to accept a state’s outstanding debt at the time of ratification.
b. the federal government to accept the outstanding federal debt accumulated under the Articles of Confederation.
c. states to normally honor each other’s public acts and legal decisions.
d. states, but not the federal government, to run a balanced budget.
e. the federal government, but not states, to run a balanced budget.
C
The privileges and immunities clause of Article IV is also referred to as the ________. a. Bill of Rights d. comity clause
b. federalism clause e. dual sovereignty clause
c. vesting clause
D
Why did local governments become administratively important in the early years of the Republic?
a. They became important because the Constitution instructed them to implement all federal laws.
b. They became important because the Constitution instructed them to implement all state laws.
c. They became important because states lacked the administrative capability to implement laws and relied, therefore, on local governments.
d. They became important because Congress passed many laws that emphasized the role of local government in implementing federal laws.
e. They became important because the Supreme Court ruled that only local governments had the authority to implement laws under the Constitution.
B
Which of the following statements best describes the history of American federalism?
a. There has always been a clear and noncontroversial allocation of responsibilities between the states and the federal government.
b. Throughout American history, there has been considerable debate about the allocation of responsibilities between the states and the federal government.
c. Debates over the responsibilities allocated to the states and to the federal government first occurred in the 1980s.
d. Debates over the responsibilities allocated to the states and to the federal government ended with the Civil War.
e. Debates over the responsibilities allocated to the states and to the federal government ended immediately after the Great Depression.
B
The source of implied powers under the U.S. Constitution is the ________ clause. a. full faith and credit d. commerce
b. comity e. supremacy
c. necessary and proper
C
Which clauses of the U.S. Constitution involve the relationships between and among the various states? a. the full faith and credit clause and the privileges and immunities clause
b. the full faith and credit clause and the federalism clause
c. the privileges and immunities clause and the federalism clause
d. the establishment clause and the full faith and credit clause
e. the establishment clause and the privileges and immunities clause
A
When was the era of dual federalism according to the authors of the text? a. from the ratification of the Constitution until the end of the Civil War b. from the ratification of the Constitution until the New Deal
c. from the Civil War until World War II
d. from the New Deal until the 1960s e. from the 1970s until 1992
B
________ is the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government. a. Home rule d. Preemption
b. Redistribution e. Incorporation
c. Devolution
C
Which event was most influential in the rise of a more active national government? a. the War of 1812 d. the Great Depression
b. the Civil War e. the Cold War
c. World War I
D
The constitutional idea of states’ rights was strongest during which historical period? a. the years immediately preceding the Civil War
b. Reconstruction
c. the 1910s
d. the Great Depression e. the 1960s
A
During the era of dual federalism, what was the primary goal of the federal government’s domestic policies? a. to promote competition between the states
b. to assist the development of commercial activity between and among the states
c. to protect citizens from the abuses of state governments
d. to keep the states from going to war with each other
B
In ________, the Supreme Court reinterpreted the commerce clause, changing it from a check on national power
to a source of national power.
a. 1865 d. 1973 b. 1915 e. 1981 c. 1937
C
The principle of ________ gives the federal government the power to override any state or local law in one particular area of policy.
a. cooperative federalism d. dual federalism
b. grant-in-aid e. home rule
c. preemption
C
Block grants are designed to
a. fund a large number of similar projects.
b. fund urban improvements on a specific city block.
c. give the states considerable discretion in how the money should be spent.
d. fund capital improvements in a specific block of schools.
e. impose strict limits on how state governments can spend money from the federal government.
C
Why were attempts by Congress to regulate child labor and factory conditions in local workplaces struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional in the late nineteenth century?
a. Regulating local workplaces was perceived to be inconsistent with the full faith and privileges clause of the Constitution.
b. Regulating local workplaces was perceived to violate the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution.
c. Regulating local workplaces was perceived to violate the comity clause of the Constitution.
d. Regulating local workplaces was beyond the scope of understanding of interstate commerce at the time and was, therefore, perceived to be an unconstitutional exercise of power by the federal government.
e. Regulating local workplaces was perceived to violate the strongly held value of regulated federalism.
D
Which clause of the U.S. Constitution has been critical in allowing the growth of national power? a. the commerce clause d. the Tenth Amendment
b. the full faith and credit clause e. the establishment clause
c. the comity clause
A
What was the overall importance of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?
a. The justices interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.
b. The justices gave a very restricted definition of Congress’s delegated powers, in keeping with the era of dual federalism.
c. The justices announced that dual federalism did not conform to the framers’ design.
d. The justices declared that all national banks were unconstitutional.
e. The justices forced all states to open at least one branch of the national bank.
A
Why was United States v. Lopez (1995) important?
a. It was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress outlined under the commerce clause.
b. It was the first time that the Court had used the Tenth Amendment to limit the power of Congress.
c. The Court found that citizens could not bring racial discrimination suits against state governments.
d. The Court found the line-item veto unconstitutional.
e. The Court gave a broad interpretation of the commerce clause that expanded the power of the federal government over the states.
A
________ are areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering. a. Civil rights d. Civil and political discourse
b. Political rights e. Civil liberties
c. Electoral rights
E
________ is a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention.
a. An advisory opinion d. Habeas corpus
b. A bill of attainder e. A writ of mandamus c. Ex post facto
D
In what year was freedom of speech extended to protect against the acts of state governments? a. 1833 d. 1925
b. 1865 e. 1964
c. 1868
D
Which of the following statements best describes the impact of the Fourteenth Amendment?
a. The addition of the Fourteenth Amendment immediately forced state governments to abide by all of the provisions in the Bill of Rights.
b. The addition of the Fourteenth Amendment had no effect whatsoever on state governments because it was designed to address the federal government.
c. The addition of the Fourteenth Amendment eventually forced state governments to abide by almost every provision in the Bill of Rights, but the process took over 100 years.
d. The addition of the Fourteenth Amendment required states to immediately abide by the First Amendment to the Constitution but not to any of the other amendments in the Bill of Rights.
e. The addition of the Fourteenth Amendment required states to immediately abide by the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution but not to any of the other amendments in the Bill of Rights.
C
Which of the following is the best description of the Supreme Court’s first ruling on the issue of the nationalization of the Bill of Rights in 1833?
a. The takings clause restricts national and state governments but not city governments.
b. The Bill of Rights should not be used if a state’s constitution already contains its own bill of rights. c. The takings clause does not cover accidents caused by government officials.
d. The Bill of Rights limits the national government but not state governments. e. The Bill of Rights limits state governments but not the national government.
D
Freedom of speech and of the press have a special place in American democracy because
a. free and open debate is an essential mechanism for determining the quality and validity of competing ideas. b. they are the only liberties explicitly mentioned in the Bill of Rights.
c. they were the last provisions in the Bill of Rights to be incorporated through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
d. they have never been restricted by any law in the history of the United States.
e. they were the only liberties explicitly mentioned in Article I of the Constitution.
A
The judicial doctrine that places a heavy burden of proof on government officials when they seek to regulate or restrict speech is called ________.
a. libel d. speech plus
b. prior restraint e. due process
c. strict scrutiny
C
The first and most famous test for determining when the government could intervene to suppress political speech was called the ________.
a. speech plus test d. Lemon test
b. clear and present danger test e. imminent lawless action test
c. strict scrutiny test
B
The Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) was significant because it concluded that the
a. Constitution prohibits the government from limiting campaign spending in any way.
b. Constitution allows the government to prevent certain candidates from running campaign ads.
c. Constitution allows the government to ban political speech funded by corporations.
d. Constitution prohibits the government from regulating political speech funded by corporations.
e. “millionaire’s amendment” to the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act was consistent with the Constitution.
A
Which of the following statements about freedom of speech is true? a. Free speech cannot be restricted by government officials.
b. Free speech can be regulated by government officials.
c. Free speech is an absolute right under the U.S. Constitution.
d. both a and c
e. Free speech is protected under the Second Amendment.
D
Which of the following would NOT be an example of speech plus? a. burning the American flag
b. assassinating a political leader
c. picketing a factory
d. holding a sit-in at a public park
e. distributing leaflets advocating political reform
A
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth amendments are largely about a. protections for those accused of committing crimes.
b. the right to privacy and travel.
c. the demands that citizens be treated equally.
d. the limits of Congress regarding economic regulation. e. the process of amending the Constitution.
A
What is a grand jury?
a. a jury used in federal courts
b. a jury that determines whether there is enough evidence to justify a trial
c. a jury that determines the sentence after guilt has been proven
d. a jury that determines whether the rights of the accused have been violated e. a jury that determines guilt or innocence in a trial
B
The term eminent domain describes the
a. power of the government to take private property for public use.
b. right of individuals not to have their private property taken by the government.
c. power of the Supreme Court to declare the meaning and scope of all civil liberties. d. power of the federal government to seize land owned and managed by the states. e. power of state governments to ignore a law enacted by the federal government.
A
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) established the right
a. to counsel in felony cases.
b. against self-incrimination.
c. to be informed of constitutional rights at the time of arrest. d. against suspicion-less searches and seizures.
e. to an open trial before a judge.
A
The due process clause of the Fifth Amendment is best described as a(n) ________. a. substantive civil liberty d. delegated power
b. procedural civil liberty e. instrumental power
c. civil right
C
The current prohibition on states to criminalize abortion is based on a. the right to due process of law.
b. equal protection against sexual discrimination.
c. the right to privacy.
d. the right against cruel and unusual punishment. e. the free exercise clause.
C
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and Roe v. Wade (1973) have been extremely important in the development of a. a constitutional right to privacy.
b. American due process.
c. New Federalism.
d. a test that can be used to determine what is protected speech. e. the rights of individuals accused of crimes.
A
Since 1973, the right to an abortion has been a. upheld and expanded.
b. upheld but narrowed in scope.
c. overturned by the Supreme Court.
d. unchanged because the Supreme Court has not heard another case involving abortion. e. repealed by a constitutional amendment.
B
During the late nineteenth century, the equal protection clause was a. used as a strong tool for engineering racial equality.
b. severely limited in scope by the Supreme Court.
c. ruled to be unconstitutional.
d. more strongly defended by individual states than by the federal government. e. not implemented because of a lack of tax revenue.
A
In their response to Brown v. Board of Education (1954), southern officials did all of the following EXCEPT a. pass laws requiring schools to remain segregated.
b. centralize school boards to prevent local districts from obeying the Supreme Court.
c. protest the constitutionality of the Court’s decision.
d. enact “pupil placement” laws that placed the burden of transferring to all-white schools on nonwhite children and their parents.
e. quickly desegregate their schools.
E
Desegregating schools in northern states proved to be difficult because
a. very few minorities lived in the North.
b. segregation in the North was generally de facto, the product of both segregated housing and acts of private discrimination that were hard to prove.
c. discrimination in the South was so visible and pervasive that little attention had been given to other parts of the country.
d. there was less hostility toward segregation in the North.
e. there was less tax revenue to fund integration efforts in the North than in the South.
B
Which of the following is true of Brown v. Board of Education (1954)?
a. The justices outlawed de facto segregation.
b. The justices outlawed de jure segregation.
c. The justices allowed school systems to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” d. The justices upheld the separate but equal doctrine.
e. The justices decided not to use the strict scrutiny test.
C
Which of the following statements best describes the impact of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 on voter registration in southern states?
a. A smaller percentage of African Americans registered to vote in southern states after passage of the Voting Rights Act.
b. A much larger percentage of whites registered to vote in southern states after passage of the Voting Rights Act.
c. The percentage of African Americans registering to vote did not change at all after passage of the Voting Rights Act.
d. The gap between the percentage of whites registering to vote and the percentage of African Americans registering to vote declined significantly after passage of the Voting Rights Act.
e. The gap between the percentage of whites registering to vote and the percentage of African Americans registering to vote increased significantly after passage of the Voting Rights Act.
D
In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court justices ruled that
a. quotas and separate admissions standards for minorities were unconstitutional but affirmative action could be used.
b. quotas and separate admissions standards for minorities were constitutional but other forms of affirmative action were unconstitutional.
c. all affirmative action policies were unconstitutional.
d. all affirmative action policies would be subject to strict scrutiny by the courts.
e. achieving a diverse student body was not a compelling public purpose.
A

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member