Test 1 – Module Q’s

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the study of brain systems and sensory processes are examples of what general theme?
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biological foundations
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mental health psychologists are most likely to be concerned with which of the following topics?
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potential & dysfunction
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a counseling psychologist is most likely to be working in which area?
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mental health
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A psychologist’s research focuses on whether a person’s personality is determined by the genes inherited from parents or by childhood and adolescent experiences. This type of research is attempting to answer the question of _________________.
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nature vs nurture
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Which question about the mind versus body controversy MOST represents today’s research by psychologists?
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What is the reciprocal relationship between the mind and the body?
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You are interested in studying the parenting skills of Americans and Europeans. As a psychologist, your research is attempting to answer which enduring question?
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Differences versus similarities
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The field of psychology originated with the _________________.
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Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle
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Psychology made the transition from philosophy to a scientific discipline with which event?
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Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory to study the mind.
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Structuralism, an early school of psychology ________________________.
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described the elements of sensations and perceptions
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Which early school of psychology focused on explaining behavior, emotion, and thought as active adaptations to environmental pressures?
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Functionalism
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The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions and dolphins to perform tricks. These training techniques are based on principles from which early school of psychology?
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Behaviorism
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Which psychologists were proponents of studying only observable behavior and not the mind?
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John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner
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The psychodynamic school of psychology emphasizes _____________________.
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the unconscious and early childhood experiences
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Sigmund Freud founded the early school of ____________ psychology while Jean Piaget influenced the development of the ____________ school of psychology.
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psychodynamic; cognitive
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Which school of psychology originated with studying the growth of thought and language processes in infants and children?
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Cognitive psychology
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The difference between the cognitive research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky is that ____________________.
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Jean Piaget recorded the progressive development of infants and children’s thinking through four major stages.
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Humanism which developed as a reaction to the behaviorism and psychodynamic schools of psychology, emphasized that ___________________________.
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each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual
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Which person is most credited with the school of humanistic psychology and the concept of self-actualization?
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Abraham Maslow
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All contemporary perspectives in psychology are interconnected in that the research of each perspective is influenced by the research findings of the other perspectives… not a question just notes
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69
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Research based on the _____________ perspective would focus on the connections of the nervous system and the neurotransmitters that affect feelings such as of sadness and despair.
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biological
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The invention of computer technology in the 1950’s led to the development of the contemporary perspective of ________ psychology.
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cognitive
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Neuroimaging techniques are used by which contemporary perspectives?
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Behavioral neuroscience, biological and cognitive
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A current research study has found that parenting styles differ among people from the United States, China, and Australia. This type of research best represents which contemporary psychology perspective?
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Social
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(not a Question)Developmental: emphasizes how cognitive, physical, and socio-emotional factors change and show stability across the lifespan
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69
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Maria is experiencing several personal setbacks, including academic problems, marital difficulties, and a dyingmother who needs her help. Maria is feeling overwhelmed, sad, and lonely. A psychologist who represents the _________ perspective could best help her.
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Clinical
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A psychologist is interested in studying how the character traits that a person has inherited influence the ability to handle stress. This study most likely reflects the contemporary __________ perspective.
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Individual differences/personality
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A study is conducted to determine the extent of damage, if any, to the brains of three groups of people who have had high blood pressure for either 5 years, 10 years, or 15 years. This study is an example of ________ research.
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basic
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Research conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving quality of life is called _____________.
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applied research
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A __________ is a general, tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse findings on the relationships between variables and therefore provides ideas for future research, whereas a __________ is a specific prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is to be tested.
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theory; hypothesis
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Which of the following is the correct sequence of activities for a psychologist utilizing the scientific research method?
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Write hypothesis, conduct study, analyze data, write conclusion, publish article
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\”Children who play violent video games will become more aggressive.\” Based on the scientific research method, this statement is most likely a __________.
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hypothesis
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A precise statement of how a variable in a study will be observed and measured is called a(n) __________.
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operational definition
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A researcher hypothesizes that children who play violent video games will become more aggressive. The variables \”play violent video games\” and \”become more aggressive\” are ____________ variables.
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conceptual
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The ethical requirement of informed consent means that participants ___________________.
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must be informed as much as possible about the purpose and conditions of the research, and that they are free to withdraw from the research at any tim
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The branchlike fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called __________.
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dendrites
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The function of the ______ is to keep the cell alive.
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soma
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An axon is a ____________.
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long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron’s cell body
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Terminal buttons are found at the ends of __________.
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axons
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Dendrite is to axon as _________ is to _________.
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receiving; sending
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Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?
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Dendrite, cell body, axon
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What is the term for the insulating material that covers some axons?
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Myelin
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What are the gaps in the myelin sheath called?
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Nodes of Ranvier
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A synapse is a __________.
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gap
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What neurotransmitter is important if there is an injury and pain relief is necessary?
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Endorphins
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My Aunt Mabel has Alzheimer’s disease. What neurotransmitter is likely in low supply in her brain?
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Acetylcholine
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If a person is shot, and the bullet destroys the part of the brain called the _____________, which maintains basic life functions (heart rate, breathing), there is virtually no chance for surviving that injury.
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medulla
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(not a question) The thalamus resides just above the brain stem area and filters sensory information to the higher levels in the brain.
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69
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The part of the brain stem called the _________ has been shown to be related to arousal in lab animals; when this part is stimulated, the animal is awake; when it’s severed (cut), the animal goes into a coma.
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reticular formation
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Jim’s friends noticed that he was stumbling around, consistently losing his balance while walking. It’s possible that his ___________ has been negatively affected or injured on some way.
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cerebellum
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The reason the area of the brain that includes the brain stem is called the \”old brain\” is that ____________________.
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it’s the oldest brain region
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Sally was hospitalized after a car accident, and due to injury to her hippocampus, she has trouble with __________________________.
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newer memories, but still retains older memories
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By stimulating the __________ part of the limbic system in lab animals, researchers found that the animal will display anger/rage instantly.
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amygdala
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Researchers discovered that the hypothalamus helps to regulate basic drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexuality. Another interesting aspect of the hypothalamus is that it ___________________.
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serves as a reward center
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The human brain’s more advanced structure, compared to most animal brains, is the __________________.
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cerebral cortex
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Contralateral control describes ____________________.
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one hemisphere’s ability to receive sensations and control movement of the opposite side of the body
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The ___________ cortex sends signals to move our muscles, whereas the ____________ cortex receives information about bodily sensations.
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motor; somatosensory
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The visual cortex is located in the _________ lobe.
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occipital
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The _________ cortex is part of the parietal lobe.
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somatosensory
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Lateralization of brain function refers to the ___________ of the brain.
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difference between hemispheres
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Which of the following best describes the process of neuroplasticity?
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When parts of the brain compensate for damages to another part of the brain
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Neurogenesis refers to the brain’s ability to ______________.
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form brand new neurons
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Julie fell during an accident at work and suffered damage that affected her ability to comprehend language. After a few months of therapy, her ability to understand language has improved. This most likely demonstrated ______________.
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neuroplasticity
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The two separate hemispheres are connected by the ___________.
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corpus callosum
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The difference between a nerve and a neuron is that a ____________.
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nerve is made up of a bundle of interconnected neurons
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The most common type of neuron in the human body is the ___________.
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interneuron
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The two main divisions of the nervous system are ____________.
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central and peripheral nervous systems
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Reflexes are _______________________.
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quick, involuntary responses that are not processed in the brain
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Cecilia accidentally touched her hot curling iron and immediately withdrew her hand before becoming consciously aware of the sensation or movement. She was able to do this because of a(n) _____________.
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spinal reflex
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The key components of the peripheral nervous system are
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somatic and autonomic nervous systems
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The terms autonomic and somatic refer to the two main subdivisions of the ____________.
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peripheral nervous system
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Christopher Reeve was accidentally thrown from his horse while riding. Unfortunately, he landed on his head and was paralyzed from the shoulders down. Although his mental abilities were intact, he was unable to move the lower part of his body, which was a result of permanent damage to his ______________.
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somatic nervous system
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As Mona was searching for her phone in her purse, she accidentally dropped her keys on the floor. She quickly reached down, retrieved them, and put them back in her purse. This voluntary reaction involved _____________ signals that were communicated to her muscles via the ____________ nervous system.
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motor; somatic
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While asleep, Jesse’s heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion are functioning without any conscious effort on his part. This is because a subdivision of the ___________ nervous system called the ____________ regulates these involuntary functions.
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peripheral; autonomic nervous system
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The two branches of the autonomic nervous system are ________________.
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sympathetic and parasympathetic
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At home alone late one night, Carlos had just finished watching a very frightening movie when there was a knock on the door. His heart rate suddenly increased, his breathing accelerated, and he began to sweat. These physiological changes were most likely triggered by his __________________.
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sympathetic nervous system
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When Carlos answered the door, he discovered it was the pizza delivery person; before long, he calmed down, and his blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing returned to their normal state. These physical reactions were most likely regulated by his ________________.
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parasympathetic nervous system
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The heightened physical arousal that characterizes the fight-or-flight response involves the __________ division of the nervous system.
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sympathetic
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When your parasympathetic nervous system works to maintain vital bodily functions so that your body is in its natural balance, it is called ____________.
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homeostasis
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The ______________ functions as the main link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
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hypothalamus
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Before entering 9th grade, Brooks had to have most of his clothes replaced because he had grown almost 3 inches since the previous year. The gland responsible for his growth is the ____________.
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pituitary gland
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The pituitary gland is the body’s master gland, which is responsible for __________ and hormones that influence feelings of __________ and signal the sexual reproduction hormones.
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growth; pain
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The ____________ produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance and are located on top of the ____________.
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adrenal glands; kidneys
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What are the two most important hormones that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system into action when we are feeling stressed?
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Norepinephrine and epinephrine
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Which gland directly regulates the production of hormones in other endocrine glands?
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Pituitary gland
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The function of the pancreas is to ____________.
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keep the body supplied with energy sources such as sugar and insulin
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The pineal gland secretes ____________, a hormone that helps regulate the _____________.
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melatonin; wake/sleep cycle
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Roberto, who is about to take the final exam for his psychology course, is totally stressed out because it is worth 50 percent of his grade. The endocrine system gland(s) that is (are) likely to be stimulated is (are) the ____________.
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adrenal glands
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Detection of energy from the environment and initiating neural action in response to it is called ____________.
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sensation
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The sensory system that detects smells is __________.
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olfaction
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You answer your cell phone without checking to see who is calling. You recognize your best friend, Maria, from her voice. This is an example of _____________.
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perception
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The term absolute threshold refers to ________________________.
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the intensity of a stimulus where we can just barely detect it
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The term JND refers to ________________________.
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the smallest difference between two stimuli that you can detect
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The brain region that receives signals from all of the senses except smell is the ____________.
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thalamus
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In a signal detection task, which of the following two outcomes both involve a \”YES\” response from the person being tested?
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HIT and FALSE ALARM
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What is the branch of psychology that studies the effects of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions and mental states?
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Psychophysics
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True or False: Signal detection analysis is a technique to determine the ability of a perceiver to make signals.
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false
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It is easy to detect the difference between a 1 lb weight and a 2 lb weight, however, it is much more difficult to detect the difference between a 51 lb weight and a 52 lb weight, even though the difference is the same: 1 lb. This is consistent with _______________.
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Weber’s law
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What differentiates light energy we can perceive visually from light energy we cannot perceive visually?
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Wavelength
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The _________ is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil.
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iris
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When a person is nearsighted, the ______ focuses light from objects far away in front of the _____, instead of on it.
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lens; retina
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Information from the left eye is processed on __________ of the visual cortex.
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both sides
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Which type of neural cell is responsible for color vision?
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Cones
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In which lobe of the brain is visual information processed?
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Occipital
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Which is not a good explanation of why we don’t notice a \”hole\” in our visual field due to our blind spot?
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We consciously direct our eyes to pick up the information missed by the blind spot.
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Light energy with very high amplitude would be perceived as ___________.
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very bright
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The Young-Helmholtz theory best explains __________.
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red-green colorblindness
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Amy lines up 5 pennies in a row from left to right. Below each penny, she places a quarter. You are likely to perceive this as two rows of coins, rather than 10 separate objects because of the principle of ___________.
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similarity
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What is most accurate regarding the development of depth perception?
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It is both learned and innate
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Convergence is an example of a(n) ___________.
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binocular depth cue
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You look out the window, and a tree appears to be very small, about the same size as your hand. You know that this means the tree must be quite far away because of the depth cue known as __________.
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relative size
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Judging the distance of a nearby object based on the angle your eyes are turned towards each other uses the depth perception cue known as __________.
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convergence
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When two images near each other are presented in succession, we perceive that it is one object that has moved. This is known as ___________.
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the beta effect
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Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to ____________.
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frequency
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An 80-decibel sound is about ___________ times louder than a 60-decibel sound.
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100
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Which part of the ear contains the pinna and auditory canal?
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outer ear
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The vibrations of the eardrum are amplified by three tiny bones: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. They are located in the _____________.
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middle ear
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The __________ is a fluid-filled chamber that contains the sensory receptors for audition.
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cochlea
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__________ are the sensory receptors for audition.
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Hair cells
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Which theory holds that the pitch we hear is determined by the particular location on the cochlea where the hair cells vibrate the most?
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Place theory
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Which of the following theories is currently thought to provide the best explanation for how we perceive low frequencies (below 150 hz)?
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Frequency theory
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Hearing loss caused by exposure to loud noise is known as __________ .
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sensorineural hearing loss
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Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?
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Taste
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Which of the following would play a role in alerting you to a gas leak in your home?
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Olfactory receptors
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The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of _______________.
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pain, pressure, hot, and cold
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Brian banged his shin against a desk and grimaced with pain. He quickly bent over and began rubbing his leg where he’d banged it and the pain he was experiencing started to subside a bit. This phenomenon can best be explained by ___________.
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the gate-control theory
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According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the ____________.
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activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord
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The sense of touch includes four basic sensations. How do we experience other types of sensations, such as wetness?
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Complex sensations arise from the combined stimulation of several basic senses.
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As John is reading, he sees the words, but the letters in all the words evoke the experience of colors. This condition is called ______________.
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synesthesia
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The McGurk effect occurs when ___________________.
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we combine information from speech and from the way the speaker’s lips are moving to hear something different from either
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Imagine that someone across the room drops a plate and it crashes to the ground and breaks. Light travels faster than sound, but our brains make it seem that the sight of the breaking plate and the smashing sound are exactly simultaneous. This is an example of ______________.
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sensory interaction
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When we experience a complex environment, our attention system ____________________.
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selects specific information to send for deeper processing, and fails to encode much of the other available information
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The text describes the \”cocktail party phenomenon,\” which occurs when we are at a party or meeting where many conversations are going on around us at the same time. What happens?
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We can fully attend to only one conversation at a time, but some information from other conversations can get into consciousness.
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A plausible explanation for the Mueller-Lyer illusion, the perception of the lines as differing in length when they are actually the same length, is that it ______________.
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is based on our experience with the interior and exterior of buildings
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the point of studying perceptual illusions is that _______________.
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they show us how our perceptual system uses information from the world around us to infer what the world is like
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The Ponzo illusion is based on what perceptual inference?
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Converging lines are perceived as lines going into the distance.
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Why does the moon illusion occur?
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Our perceptual system is influenced by the detailed objects on earth we see near the moon when it is near the horizon, leading the perceptual system to treat it as a closer, and therefore larger, object.

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