Terrorism and Technology
India and the United States. the world’s two largest democracies. are both vulnerable to terrorist onslaughts. As an Indian participant in the workshop said. “The most vulnerable provinces are those with unfastened societies that tolerate dissent. ” So far. India and the United States have faced instead different signifiers of panic onslaughts. Notwithstanding the terrorist menace. modern industrial societies have some offsetting advantages. Their planetary intelligence services and military presence. particularly when they cooperate with one another. may maintain the panic webs off balance. and may be able to damage some of them and interfere with their communications and money flows. Military action. or the menace of it. may deter rogue provinces from back uping the terrorists.
However. extremely efficient economic systems besides get exposures and decreased resiliency from the private sector’s reluctance to give efficiency to cut down ruinous hazards whose likeliness is hard to gauge One country in which both India and the United States enjoy impressive capableness is research and invention. Through the application of available or new engineerings. provinces can do marks less vulnerable. therefore less attractive. They can restrict the harm that may ensue from an onslaught. increase the velocity of recovery. and supply forensic tools to place the culprits. However. terrorist webs are led by knowing and well-financed people who may besides bask advanced proficient accomplishments.
If supported by a authorities whose military constitution has developed arms of mass devastation. these accomplishments may be greatly amplified. Any proficient scheme for reacting to the menace of ruinous terrorist act must turn to this fact.
•fissile atomic stuffs. tactical atomic arms. and radiological stuffs
•pathological beings ( human. works. and animate being )
•military-type toxic chemical arms
•inflammable. toxic. and explosive chemicals and stuffs in industrial usage
•cyberattacks and electromagnetic pulsation ( EMP ) attacks on electronic marks ( telecoms. informations. or bid and control centres )
•transportation systems used as bringing systems for arms
•explosives. either conventional or derived from fuel oil and N fertiliser ( ammonium nitrate ) . for illustration Benefits-
•revitalization of the public wellness service for functioning the normal wellness demands of communities
•technical capableness to react even faster and more efficaciously to natural biological menaces such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) . West Nile virus. and monkey syphilis virus
•reduction in the figure of unwellnesss caused by infection or toxic condition of the nutrient supply
•more dependable electric power and other services. particularly in the face of hurricanes. inundations. and temblors
•further betterments in the safety criterions of the chemical industry
•reduced incidence of cyber onslaughts by hackers and fiscal systems made more unafraid against larceny and malicious harm •more efficient and timely trailing of goods in theodolite and charge for their content
•reduced hazard to fire. constabulary. and exigency wellness professionals
Extenuation: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Nuclear and Radiological Menaces
If terrorists with a minimum degree of scientific cognition can get plenty extremely enriched U ( HEU ) . they may be able to piece an inefficient but effectual atomic arm for explosion in a major metropolis. The states are now collaborating in safeguarding fissionable stuff and intermixing down stocks of HEU. but advancement is far excessively slow. Even more unsafe is the possible handiness to terrorists of finished atomic arms either stolen and sold from atomic provinces or provided by knave provinces capable of doing them. The public must be educated on the nature of radiological menaces. both from Radiation Dispersal Devices ( soiled bombs ) and from damaged atomic electric power workss and radioactive waste storage. Public ignorance about radiation jeopardies may bring on a degree of panic much more destructive than the radiation from which people may be flying. .
Biological Menaces to Peoples and Their Food Supply
Research on pathogenesis of infective agents. and peculiarly on agencies for early sensing of the presence of such pathogens before their diagnostic visual aspect. is of import. States will carry vaccinums against known diseases. but the menace of familial modification—while possibly beyond the capableness of most terrorists but non of knave states—requires a vigorous research attempt to happen solutions for sensing. rating. and response. In the United States the Center for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) provides a robust capableness in epidemiology. but there is no tantamount epidemiological response capableness for possible biological onslaughts on agribusiness and farm animate beings. Therefore. steps to protect the nutrient supply. and to supply decontamination after an onslaught. must hold high precedence.
Toxic Chemicals. Explosives. and Flammable Materials
. Dangerous chemicals in theodolite should be tracked and identified electronically. To guarantee that merely first respondents. and non terrorists. cognize what the armored combat vehicle autos contain. the rail autos should be equipped with encrypted electronic designation. Sensor webs are required to observe and qualify unsafe stuffs. peculiarly when they are airborne. Self-analyzing filter systems for modern office edifices whose Windowss can non be opened can non merely protect the dwellers but besides detect and describe the first presence of stuffs ( such as aerosols ) that may be trapped in improved filters. An illustration of long-range. basic research that could be extremely good would be the find of olfactory biosensors than can make dog degrees of sensitiveness. some 10. 000 times that of worlds.
Communicationss and Information Systems
In the United States the most pressing issue is to reconfigure first respondent communications so that constabulary. fire. and medical forces can pass on with one another and with the exigency operations centres. Inability to make so greatly aggravated loss of life. particularly among firemans. in the World Trade Center onslaughts. The chief concern about cyber onslaughts is the possibility of their usage. possibly with electromagnetic pulse devices every bit good. to magnify the destructive consequence of a conventional physical or biological onslaught. 13 Cyber security is one of the top precedence countries for research investing because private industry was. before September 11. 2001. mostly content with the degree of computing machine and web security available to it. A rather unequal degree of sophisticated endowment is devoted to the end of to the full unafraid runing systems and webs.
Transportation system and Boundary lines
Sensor webs for review of goods and riders traversing the nation’s boundary lines will be a research precedence. The primary proficient challenge will non be the design of detectors themselves. although much advancement is needed in this country. but in the systems technology of the webs of detectors together with informations merger and determination support package. Biometricss for more unafraid designation of persons shows promise. and systems superior to the driver’s licences and passports used by most travellers are assuring. The scope of menaces to the transit webs of a modern province is really great. and careful systems analysis is indispensable to placing the weak points and happening the most effectual and economical agencies of protecting them.
Cities and Fixed Infrastructure
The Emergency Operations Centers ( EOC ) in many big U. S. metropoliss are rather vulnerable. non merely to a destructive physical onslaught but to more indirect onslaughts on their ability to entree informations and to pass on through a cyber onslaught or electromagnetic pulse onslaught. Rectifying these exposures must hold high urgency ; in many instances the centres will hold to be relocated. Tragically. the EOC in New York City was located in a known mark. the World Trade Center. Much research is already under manner to analyse the structural features of high-rise edifices that may do them much more vulnerable than necessary. Without waiting for this research to ensue in revised edifice codifications. the adept panel recommended immediate acceptance and extension. where appropriate. of European criterions for fire and blast. which were much improved undermentioned World War II. As already noted. air consumptions for big edifices need to be less accessible and equipped with better air filters. possibly with chemical analysis sufficient to find if a toxic stuff is present.
Instrumentality to let first respondents to observe toxic and risky stuffs ; particular commissariats for protecting seaports. Bridgess. dikes. tunnels. and butchs ; and protection against onslaughts on urban H2O supplies downstream from the intervention works are all discussed in Making the Nation Safer. How much of the long term. inventive research and development envisioned in Making the State Safer has been undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security ( DHS ) ? Not plenty. The Science and Technology Directorate of DHS does non hold the range of authorization. nor the length of vision that the Academies’ survey urged on Congress. Critics say that it has been hard for DHS to prolong an adept staff with low plenty bend over to construct and put to death the needful proficient schemes. Nor has the Homeland Security Institute been given the necessary range of independent system-level reappraisal of the DHS proficient precedences.
SOCIETAL RESPONSES TO TERRORIST THREATS
the populace can besides be an onslaught amplifier. The authorities faces a figure of quandary. such as utilizing a color-coded warning system to alarm the populace to the perceived likeliness of extra terrorist onslaughts. Some citizens feel that this system itself may needlessly magnify the menace. therefore making terrorists’ psychological occupation for them. An pressing issue to be addressed is for authorities to develop and present to the populace. good in progress of any onslaught. a figure of sure and knowing people who are prepared to supply accurate and trusty information rapidly and magisterially.
From the great assortment of menaces studied by the National Academies’ experts. several commonsensible decisions about proficient scheme can be extracted: •repair the weakest links ( single-point failures ) in vulnerable systems and substructures •use defenses-in-depth ( make non trust merely on margin defences or firewalls ) •use “circuit breakers” to insulate and stabilise neglecting system elements •build security and flexibleness into basic system designs where possible •design systems for usage by typical first respondents
•Focus precedence attending on the “system of systems” proficient challenge to understand and rectify the built-in failings in critical substructure that are built-in in their architecture. •Ensure that first respondents. including proficient squads from critical substructure service industries. are decently trained and equipped. and the marks themselves are designed to be more resilient in the face of catastrophe. •Emphasize the importance of flexibleness and legerity in reacting to catastrophes that were non anticipated in the system design and forces preparation. The last point is peculiarly of import. Future onslaughts are likely to affect multiple complex systems. There are a figure of dimensions to the systems technology challenge of fatherland security. The multiple critical industrial substructures are closely coupled.
About all of the responses to terrorist menaces require the concerned action of national bureaus. province and local governments. private companies. and in many instances. friendly states. The engineerings used in counterterrorism will themselves be coupled. complex systems. An apparent illustration is the impression of complex webs of detectors that are coupled to databases. within which the web end product is fused with other information. and from which reasonable and functional information for local functionaries in Emergency Operations Centers must be provided. Therefore. puting precedences requires patterning and imitating onslaught and response. and “red teaming” to prove the effectivity of proposed solutions.
Finally. there is a demand to construct up investings in the societal scientific disciplines. which will be particularly of import in inventing schemes for countering terrorist act. Both the roots of terrorist act and its effects need to be better understood. Social scientific discipline can besides lend to a sustainable attempt. affecting multiple degrees of authorities. with minimum economic cost. and where the sensed struggle between security activities and protection of single freedom can outdo be informed and adjudicated.
A SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY FOR HOMELAND SECURITY
Because major terrorist onslaughts against civil populations may be separated by considerable intervals of clip. there is ground to be concerned that the populace will lose involvement in the menace. and that none of the organisational or investing demands will be satisfactorily met. For these grounds. the scheme for maximising civil benefits deserves high-priority attending. There are many obvious illustrations of how antagonistic panic research and development can make values appreciated by the public and of economic value to houses. such as creative activity of a more nimble vaccinum development and production capableness. information and communications webs that are more immune to cyber onslaught. energy systems more robust in the face of natural catastrophes and human mistake. security engineerings that are more effectual yet more unnoticeable and convenient for the populace.
Sustainability will be a challenge for those in political power in the United States. for they find themselves compelled to stress the public’s exposure ( for illustration. with the color-coded qui vive system. which is mostly successful in doing the public nervous ) and at the same clip to stress that the government’s attempts “have the terrorists on the tally. ” Indeed. we can easy conceive of that terrorist organisations such as Als Qaeda may intentionally wait long intervals between onslaughts to diminish the watchfulness of the target’s defences.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
There are seven major points that I would reason from this treatment. First. merely a far-sighted foreign policy. turn toing the roots of terrorist act and denying terrorist political orientations a bridgehead in other societies. can do the United States and its Alliess safer in the long tally. Second. arms of mass devastation are potentially annihilating. but the most likely menaces will be fashioned from the economic system itself. as was the instance on September 11. 2001. Private belongings and commercial industry is most frequently the mark of terrorist onslaughts. and may be supplying the arms for their ain devastation. Therefore. the federal authorities must invent both positive and negative inducements for private investings in indurating critical substructure and urban marks. Third. the protection of critical substructure must. to the extent possible. be accomplished through a civilian benefits maximization scheme.
Fourth. cut downing exposures in critical substructure is a extremely complex systems job ; it requires a scheme tested by the most modern systems analytic attacks. Fifth. since most of the scientific discipline and engineering capableness of market economic system authoritiess lies outside the security bureaus. authoritiess must be able to organize and fund a national scientific discipline and engineering scheme. Sixth. a grade of cooperation between industry. metropoliss. and authorities terra incognita in anterior experience is required. In peculiar. local governments must hold an effectual voice in puting the proficient docket for equipment for which they are the client. Finally. for the protection against terrorist act to be sustainable. more than a civilian benefits maximization scheme is required. The negative effects on civil freedoms from increased authorization in the cardinal authorities must be resisted. since the menace of terrorist onslaught is indefinite and exigency steps may ne’er be relaxed.
Now. allow us analyze security. First. although scientific discipline and engineering will non work out all jobs related to terrorist act against the constituents doing up a modern regional or national substructure. it can assist in bar. extenuation. and Restoration if an onslaught or onslaughts are attempted or carried out. In other words. scientific discipline and engineering will assist to cut down the menace of terrorist act. but it can non extinguish it. Unfortunately. terrorist act has become a fact of life. Whenever there are disgruntled people who are willing to give up their ain lives or do non value human life. it will be hard to extinguish the menace of terrorist onslaughts. A specific point where scientific discipline and engineering can assist is in the country of intelligence. by supplying information about the potency for an act of terrorist act to be conducted. For illustration. what is being done to screen through alfresco communications—both electronic mail and voice wireless—is instead galvanizing both in measure and in grade of edification.
There are plans. such as Trailblazer at the National Security Agency. that look for keywords and lucifers. Some of the recent terrorist act qui vives have been based on information gathered through these plans. There is another facet that inexorably links substructure and security. The more sophisticated. complicated. or technologically evolved the substructure. that is. the more delicate it is. the more hard it is to procure against terrorist act and the greater theneed for scientific discipline and engineering solutions. The latter was the peculiar challenge that we were confronted with at the National Academies in bring forthing the study entitled Making the Nation Safer. 50 What can and should be done incrementally as society becomes more and more complex. sophisticated. and interdependent? How do you set up beds of protection because of increased exposure? First. communicating and coordination is required. When the September 11. 2001. terrorist onslaughts occurred. the New York City Response Center was in the World Trade Center.
So the ability of the fire and constabulary sections within New York City to react was hampered badly because there was no manner to centralise and organize the actions of the first respondents. The lesson to be learned is that excess response centres are needed for merely this kind of eventuality. The deficiency of communicating was another lesson coming from the World Trade Center catastrophe. There is a definite demand to hold common systems that will let all parties to pass on seamlessly Sing constructing constructions. another lesson can be drawn from the onslaught on the Pentagon. The Pentagon was hit precisely at the point between a freshly restored part of the Pentagon and the old Pentagon. While there was harm to the freshly restored subdivision. there was no structural failure to that portion of the edifice. The walls absorbed the energy of the clang. In contrast. the old Pentagon suffered terrible harm.
Its walls collapsed. Most of the loss of life was in the old portion of the Pentagon. The lesson here is to integrate blast-resistant designs and stuffs into high-profile edifices For metropoliss. one of the countries that is most in demand of immediate attending is the ability to react to ruinous events. There is a demand for simulation theoretical accounts. improved communications. and associated preparation. There is besides a demand to carry on systems analyses of responses to events in both infinite and clip. For transit systems. there is an immediate demand for intelligent “information agents” for lading. These agents would include a combination of planetary placement systems and detectors to observe interlopers and. perchance. the presence of certain stuffs every bit good as transporting paperss detailing the contents. Such agents would be installed on every cargo auto in a rail system. every container on a ship. and every container transported by truck.
Therefore. one could supervise at every point in clip precisely where each container or rail auto is. what it contains. its finish. and whether there has been any effort to fiddle with or come in it. The assorted pieces of the alleged intelligent agent be today and have been used on a limited footing. Attempts are under manner to get married these assorted constituents into the type of agent I have described. Cargo scanning engineering is complementary to the intelligent agents. While lading scanners do be. there is a demand to incorporate assorted constituents into a “one-stop shop” to supervise for specific points or radiation. The scanning equipment should be located at the point of boarding of the container to forestall deadly arms from making their intended finish.
What good would it be to place a atomic arm in a container as you offload it in New York Harbor? 53 Transportation engineering demands to widen beyond the lading. There is a obliging demand to develop agencies of quickly placing people. look intoing them and their baggage. Although there are systems in topographic point today. the sheer Numberss of people and locations is dashing. The usage of biometries would greatly relieve this job. while increasing the assurance degree of the security forces. Quickly deployable barriers to maintain belowground constructions and tunnels from being flooded are another demand.