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TCU non western world lit abunasser

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The Day the Leader was Killed
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Naguib Mahfouz
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Purple Hibiscus
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Chimamanda Adichie
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TV People
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Haruki Murakami
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Scheherazade
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Haruki Murakami
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Year of the Elephant
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Leila Abouzeid
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first novel by Nigerian author, Chimamanda Adichie. Published in 2003.
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Purple Hibiscus
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Purple Hibiscus was set primarily in
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Enugu, a city in postcolonial Nigeria.
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one-third larger than Texas and the most populous country in Africa; situated on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa.
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Nigeria
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The first inhabitants of what is now Nigeria
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the Nok people (500 BCE – ca. 200 AD)
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peoples that subsequently migrated to Nigeria.
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The Kanuri, Hausa, and Fulani
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introduced to Nigeria in the 13th century
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Islam
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empire that controlled Nigeria from the end of the 11th century to the 14th century.
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Kanem
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empire that ruled Nigeria from the beginning of the 19th century until the British annexed Lagos in 1851 and seized control of the rest of the region by 1886.
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Fulani
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in 1914, Nigeria formally became
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the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
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What happened in Nigeria on Oct. 1, 1960
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Nigeria gained independence and became a member of the Commonwealth of nations by joining the UN.
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Organized as a loose federation of self-governing states, the independent nation of Nigeria faced the overwhelming task of
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unifying a country with 250 ethnic and linguistic groups.
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Culturally, Nigeria has over 250 ethnic and linguistic groups, but the three largest are
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Igbo (or Ibo) in the east, the Hausa in the North, and the Yoruba in the west.
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As for religion, about half of Nigeria is ____ and approximately 40% is ____.
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Muslim; Christian. *Traditional religions are also still practiced widely throughout the country.
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Kambili & her family are members of one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, the
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Igbo
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After a coup in 1966, Nigerian army leaders suspended the national and regional constitutions. Later that year, another coup established a new leader,
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Lt. Col. Gowon.
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The turmoil eventually resulted in the politically-motivated massacre of Igbo people in the north. The leader of the Igbo, Ojukwu, declared the Igbo region the independent Republic of Biafra, resulting in a bloody civil war between Biafra and Nigeria.
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The turmoil eventually resulted in the politically-motivated massacre of Igbo people in the north. The leader of the Igbo, Ojukwu, declared the Igbo region the independent Republic of Biafra, resulting in a bloody civil war between Biafra and Nigeria.
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The Nigerian secession effort ultimately failed, and ____ was reintegrated into Nigeria in 1970.
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Biafra
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The chaos and violence under the leader “Big Oga” in Purple Hibiscus echoes the atmosphere under the regime of _______, who took over in 1993. During this time, Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations.
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General Sani Abacha
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Abacha died in 1998 and was succeeded by _______ who attempted to restore order to the country. He released political prisoners and held elections.
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General Abdul Salam Abubakar
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A former leader who had been imprisoned under Abacha, ____ , was inaugurated as the president of Nigeria in 1999.
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General Obasanjo
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Refers to five North African Arab countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya & Mauritania
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The Maghreb: Western Arab World)
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The Maghreb populations is primarily of
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Berber and Arab descent
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became widespread in the maghreb in the 12th century
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Arabic language
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Berberist movements in North Africa generally uncomfortable with the term “Maghreb” due to its
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associations with Arab nationalism
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Refers to the Arabic speaking countries to the east of Egypt and north of the Arabian Peninsula
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The Mashriq: Eastern Arab World
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occupies an ambiguous position. Though it is tied linguistically and culturally to both the Maghreb and the Mashriq, it fits perfectly into neither. Despite this, it is often categorized as part of the Mashriq, due to its closer ties to the Eastern Arab countries
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Egypt
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Before the 20th century the most predominant form of Arabic literature was
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poetry
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Some of the major themes of this early Arabic poetry were the following:
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Exaggerated high praise Bitter personal attacks Sex and wine Religious and philosophical contemplation
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Early Arabic prose focused mainly on non-fiction subjects, such as
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biography, history, and geography.
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Arabic travel books and diaries responded to
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growing curiosity, increased trade, and political growth.
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The rise of Persian power and influence contributed to a decline in
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Arabic literature – though its influences remained part of Persian literature.
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a revival of Arabic literature occurred during the
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19th century
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Initially, the revival of arabic literature centered mainly in ____, though it spread to other Arab countries in the early 20th century.
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Egypt
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Part of this arabic literature renaissance was a result of the
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translation of Arabic works into other languages.
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The literary renaissance followed two different courses:
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neoclassical and modernist
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an attempt to rediscover literary traditions and cultural identities of the past – particularly pre-imperial identities
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neoclassical
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relied heavily on the translation of Western works, primarily novels, into Arabic
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modernist
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During the period of “high empire” (primarily in the Victorian era), the interest in Arabic literature and art was part of what has come to be known as
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orientalism
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A fascination with exoticism and taboo characterized the representation of the Arab world in
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Europe
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By the end of the 20th century, the increase in translation of Arabic works into other languages dispelled the myth of exoticism and emphasized, rather, modern Arabic literature’s involvement in
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cultural criticism, activism, artistic innovation, etc.
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Edward Said, in Orientalism, provides a clear picture of the ways social scientists, specifically Orientalists, can
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disregard the views of those they actually study – preferring instead to rely on the intellectual superiority of themselves and their peers.
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Orientalist knowledge created to:
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Colonize and administer Imagine “primitive” contrast to civilization Imagine freedom & sensuality repressed by civilization
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a leading theme in Arabic literature was the
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East/West conflict
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Themes of Modern Arabic Literature:
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-The search for identity — Arab writers for many generations tried to define themselves in relation to others. -Nationalist struggle for independence.
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After independence, Arab countries remained within the sphere of western influence for a long time until
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Jamal Abd Al-Nasir and the Egyptian Army revolution of 1952. This in turn helped to push Arabic literature in other directions.
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Arabic Literature Today:
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Transnational/multilingual Examinations of regional cultures Poetic form meets prose traditions Cultural criticism
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Published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts, and five plays over a 70-year career
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Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006)
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Prose blunt; characters mostly ordinary people trying to cope with
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modernization
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Most of Naguib Mahfouz’s writings deal with politics
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politics
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What was Naguib Mahfouz awarded in 1988
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the Nobel Prize in Literature
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Most of Naguib Mahfouz works are set in
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Cairo
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an interdiscipline containing elements of social science and the humanities, dealing with the systematic study of the theory, the description, and the application of translation, interpreting – or both these activities.
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translation studies
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As an interdisciplinary field, translation studies borrows from the different fields of study that support translation. These include
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comparative literature, computer science, history, linguistics, philosophy, semiotics, etc.
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Translation studies focuses on
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global mobility and intercultural communication.
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translation studies is not a
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linguistic process. The process involves reshaping and rewiring the text. The translator must negotiate between the original text (the source) and its destination (the target).
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a concept used in cultural studies to denote the process of transformation, linguistic or otherwise, in a given culture.
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Cultural translation
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cultural translation uses linguistic translation as a tool or metaphor in analyzing
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the nature of transformation in cultures. This kind of translation continually reminds the reader of difference.
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A text produced for one set of readers is rendered to a different set of readers with different
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expectations, aesthetic concepts, etc.
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The translator has to take into account not only the linguistic dimensions but the problem of
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diverse layers of meaning in different cultural contexts.
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No translation is identical with the
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original.
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twin processes, constantly interacting
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Writing and translating
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Successful translations cross
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linguistic and cultural/national boundaries