TCMG 272 Ch 1

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
End-user Computing
refers to the use of computer technology for both business and personal use
Early 50’s and 60’s
Early Computers: they were very large and very expensive to buy and operate because of this they were installed in secure central locations. These computer systems (mainframes) were programmed and operated by computer professionals only
encouraged the transition of decentralizing computing
1. the introduction of terminals (integrated keyboards and display screens) located on workers’ desks and could be connected directly to large computers
2. development of smaller, less expensive computers that reduced cost
80’s and 90’s
workers in many companies began to use computers on a daily basis
Major reasons for the growth of decentralized computing
– The backlog of requests for new computer applications
– an increase in the number of knowledge workers
-availability of inexpensive personal computers
-availability of inexpensive productivity software
-the development of user-friendly graphical user interfaces
Applications development backlog
refers to the excess demand for computer applications (programs) that could not be met by existing supply of computer professionals available to develop them
Knowledge worker
an employee whose primary job is to collect, prepare, process, and distribute information; growth in these correspond to shift from world economy of agricultural and industrial to automated work tasks that rely on computing technology
a complete computer: often called a PC, built on a smaller scale than large scale or workgroup systems with a central processing unit (CPU)
organizations spent more on programming custom software applications than on hardware
graphical user interfaces (GUI)
screen images that enable users to access program features and functions intuitively. Made programs much easier to use than command oriented software that had to be typed at a terminal keyboard (80s and 90s)
Distributed computing
describes an environment in which the needs of an organization and its workers determine the location of its computer resources (common during late 90s and 2000s)
Relies on servers, wired, wireless, and internet network technology to link workers and clients in a small business or throughout an entire enterprise
cloud computing
powerful servers store and process data remotely-delivering information, communication tools, and software applications (apps) on demand to local devices via internet. Can be connected here from variety of desktop and mobile devices
provides: processing power, application software, data storage, and support services
classifying end users
ENVIRONMENT: personal (home) user or work user
SKILL LEVEL: Novice, semiskilled, expert
FREQUENCY OF USE: Occasional, frequent, or extensive
SOFTWARE USE: word processing email, accounting, or others
FEATURES USED: basic, intermediate, or advanced (power users)
RELATIONSHIP: internal user (coworker) or external user (client)
Internal user
people who work in the same organization that provides technical support services (in house clients)
external user
people who are clients or customers who are not part of the organization that provides the support services
Resources End-Users need
Basic Hardware
Add-on Peripherals
Hardware Maintenance and Upgrades
Software and software upgrades
Data and Information
Technical support
Facilities, administration, and overhead
total cost of ownership
Basic Hardware
electrical and mechanical components that are part of a computer
– Central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage space, a keyboard, mouse, monitor, perhaps modem, usually printer
Peripheral devices
hardware ad ons that plug into the computer’s system unit, either internally (inside the case) or externally
-dial-up, broadband, wireless modem for internet
-scanner, digital camera
-removable disk
CAD (computer aided design) program
software package tailored to a specific business
TCO (total cost of ownership)
total expenditures necessary to purchase maintain, upgrade and support a user’s personal computer or device over its expected useful lifetime
accounts for 20% of the total cost of ownership
total cost of ownership to an organization for a personal computer over four year period
$23,000; or $5800 per year reduced to $3400 if kept in a well managed environment
Problems Users Experience
-Waste of resources
-User mistakes
-Computer crime
-Theft of resources
-Invasion of privacy
-Abusive users
-Security threats
-Health problems
software piracy
when a user illegally copies, or uses computer programs or information
computer virus
a piece of software created with malicious intent that can destroy information, erase or corrupt software or data, or adversely affect the operation of an infected computer or other device
keystroke logger
a malware program that captures keystrokes a user enters at a PC and transmits the captured information to an external site
carpal tunnel syndrome
severe hand or wrist pain due to an inflammation of the tendons in a user’s hand and wrist
field that studies how to design a workspace that promotes worker health, safety and productivity
trends that influenced the demand for user support workers
-economic recession 2007 to 2009 increase in U.S. unemployment rate
-transfer of technical support jobs overseas (lower wages/well trained workers available) reduced demand for IT and technical support workers in U.S.
-some organizations that need technical support services now contract with temporary employment agencies then become permanent
-some organizations have experienced an increased demand for support workers due to expansion of mobile technologies and increased need for computer security specialists
Computer user support
provides information and services to workers or clients to help them solve problems and use computers more productively in their jobs or at home
technical support
a higher level support function that focuses on advanced troubleshooting and problem solving
peer support
one or more workers whose job titles usually have little to do directly with technology (like office managers, administrative specialists, or accounting department heads) are generally recognized as the person to turn to when a user has a technology question; this form of support is informal
part-time user support
often the first step an organization takes toward a formal support function occurs when user support responsibilities are written into an existing worker’s position description
user support team
organizing the existing part-time support workers; a formal workgroup that provides technology support resources and services; can consist of workers who provide support in addition to other job responsibilities; can also combine full and part time staff into a support group
help desk
provides a single point of contact for users in need of technology support services, whether they are internal workers or external clients; may stand alone or be part of a larger user support group
help desk
– has a physical location where internal workers or external clients can go when they have a question or problem; or want to request online visit or call
– has a telephone number that can be called for assistance
– has an email or website or online chat service that workers or clients can contact for tech assistance
user support center
provides a wider range of services than a help desk to an organization’s internal computer users
-consult on tech purchases
-training via training center or program
-information and troubleshooting assistance provided by a help desk
an organization contracts with a vendor that specializes in support functions to handle problem incidents
Disadvantages of outsourcing user support
-usually occurs by telephone or email because on site assistance is expensive
-costs are typically predictable
-relying on a vendor’s staff for important functions and does not develop its own in house tech support expertise
-support staff rarely develops a personal relationship with an organization’s end user/a personal relationship between end users and support staff means users more likely to report problems and seek help
workers who provide info services may do these
-respond to requests for product info
-provide solutions to common problems
-market and sell products and services
-receive and log user complaints about product features
-handle warranty claims and authorize product returns or exchanges
locating information to assist users
printed vendor manuals, trade books and textbooks, online help, databases, websites, and automated telephone voice response units
Support standards
lists of computer products that an organization allows or encourages its workers to use and that it will support
reduces support costs
computer facilities management
tasks such as network security, media backup, virus detection and prevention, ergonomic analyses, supplies management, preventive maintenance, repairs on hardware and peripherals, and other related tasks
position description
a written description of the qualifications for and responsibilities of a job in an organization ; tool that reflects how an organization structures its user support function
knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform a job
a task that can be performed
function that an applicant either can or cannot do
The goal of a early large-scale computers was to automate as much manual processing of business information as possible
all of these
Which of these developments account for the trend to decentralized computers in the 1980s and 1990s?
environment, software use, features used, relationship
Computer users can be classified by characteristics such as skill level, frequency use,________________, and _______________
information technology (IT)
information services (IS)
A modern name for the Data Processing Department is _________________
Widespread use of the Internet among business and home computer users first occurred during which decade?
worker in an organization
An internal user is a(n)
Technical support costs are generally included in the purchase price of a technology product, and therefore technical support is free to users
_____________ is a field that studies how to design a work environment that promotes worker health, safety, and productivity.
an invasion of privacy
Use of a computer to obtain unauthorized access to information about a customer, student, or patient is
graphical user interface (GUI)
A(n) _____________ uses pull down menus and screen images that are easier to use than software that require users to memorize and type lengthy commands
Small companies often meet their need for technology support by combining user support with another position
A help desk provides a single point of contact for technology users in need of support.
A physical location where users can get help
a telephone hotline users can call for help
an email address where users can send a message
Help desk services can be provided via:
outsourcing uses expertise a company may not have
Which of the following statements is an advantage of using outsourcing to provide user support?
OVer the next ten years, employment in computer and network support occupations is expected to:
needs analysis, needs assessment
The process of matching a user’s needs wit supported technology products is called a(n)________
support standards
______________ are lists of approved and recommended technology products that an organization is committed to support
operates a large scale computer
Which of the following job responsibilities would you least expect to find in a position description for a user support specialist?
documentation, documents, user manual
Printed or online tutorial or reference materials for computer users are called________
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs)
A(n) ______________ outlines what you need to know or be able to do to perform a job.
chat session
A web-based communication between two internet users who are outlined at the same time and alternately type and view messages is called:

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