Study Guide: Molecular Genetics

What type of bio molecule is DNA
nucleic acid

What monomer makes up DNA
nucleotide

What does DNA stand for
Deoxyribosenucleic acid

Where is DNA located
nucleus

A replicated chromosome is made up of identical…
Sister chromatids

What does DNA store
genetic info

Sister chromatids attach at the what
centromere

Who discovered DNA is the genetic material of living things
Hershey & Chase

What does DNA coil around
Histones

Who discovered the molecular structure of DNA
Watson & Crik

DNA is also called a
double helix

Whose X-ray was used to figure out DNA’s molecular structure
Rosalind Frankin

What kind of back-bone supports DNA
Sugar phosphate backbone

What is found on the 5′ end of DNA
Phosphate

What is found on the 3′ end of DNA
Deoxyribose

The letters of DNA represent
nitrogrenous bases

What does “A” represent
Adenine

What does “G” represent
Guanine

What does “C” represent
Cytosine

What does “T” represent
Thymine

What does “U” represent
Uracil

What base is NOT on DNA
Uracil

What base is not on RNA
Thymine

What are adenine and guanine classified as
Pruines

What are cytosine and thymine classified as
Pyrimidines

Which base pairs up with thymine
Adenine

Which base pairs up with cytosine
Guanine

How many hydrogen bongs connect adenine and thymine
2

How many hydrogen bases connect guanine and cytosone
3

What is the structure of purines
2 rings of carbon

What is the structure of pyrimidines
1 ring of carbon

What connects base pairs
Hydrogen pairs

When does DNA replication occur
Interphase

Which enzyme breaks they hydrogen bonds between base pairs
DNA Helicase

A replication bubble is made of two
Replication forks

Which enzyme builds a new DNA strand in the 5′ to 3′ direction
DNA polymerase

Which enzyme forms bonds between adjacent nucleotides
DNA ligase

How many DNA molecules are present at the end of DNA replication
2

How many strands does RNA have
1

What sugar is present in DNA
Deoxyribose

What sugar is present in RNA
Ribose

What does the m in mRNA stand for
Messanger

What does the r in rRNA stand for
Ribosomal

What does the t in tRNA stand for
Transfer

Which type of RNA holds amino acids
tRNA

Which type of RNA has codons
mRNA

Which type of RNA carries the DNA’s instruction to the ribosome
mRNA

what type of RNA has anti codons
tRNA

To which part of the sugar-phosphate backbone does the nitrogenous base attach
Sugar

What is made at the end of the Central Dogma
Protein

What is the starting molecule for the Central Dogma
DNA

Where does transricption take place
Nucleus

What is made during transcription
mRNA copy

Where does DNA translation take place
Cytoplasm (ribosome)

Which organelle is the protein factory
Ribosome

What are the monomers of protein
Amino acids

How many bases are in one codon
3

How many amino acids match with one codon
1

What happens at the end of traslation
It becomes folded

What is a change in DNA and RNA called
Mutation

What causes mutations
Mutagens

Can DNA mutations occur randomly
Yes

What is it called when a cell has an extra chromosome
Trisomey

What is it called when a cell has one less chromosome
Monosomey

What type of Chromosomal Alteration cuts out a section of the chromosome
Deletion

What type of Chromosomal Alteration causes 2 chromosomes to exchange places
Translocation

What type of mutation changes a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence
Point mutation

What mutation causes a single amino acid to change and produce a faulty protein
Missence point mutation

What type of mutation causes the reading frame of the mRNA to change
Frameshift

In genetic engineering, what kind of enzymes are used to cut DNA
Restriction enzymes

What is a piece of bacterial DNA called
Plasmid (vector)

What is the method that is used to separate and analyse a sample of DNA
Gel electrophoresis

What is Chargaff (and what year)
1950, complementary base pairing

Hershey & Chase
1952, DNA (not protein) was genetic material

Watson & Crik
1953, Discovered DNA’s molecular structure

Crik
1956, Created Central Dogma

What does it mean to say DNA is anti-parallel
It is anti-parallel because they are side by side but they build in opposite directions

Why is DNA replication called semi-conservative
After replication one daughter cell is paired with one parent cell

Helicase
breaks hydrogen bonds

Ploymerase
builds up complement strands

Ligase
forms bonds of adjacent nucleotides

DNA and RNA similarities
Both nucleic acids, both have 4 nitrogenous bases

DNA and RNA differences
DNA has two strands, RNA has 1
DNA sugar- Deoxyribose, RNA sugar- Ribose
DNA Shape- Double Helix, RNA shape- random

The process of transcription
Gene is read in nucleus and copied into mRNA so it can leave the nucleus

The process of translation
Ribosomes read the mRNA code and matches the appropriate codons with the right anti-condons found in tRNA. tRNA delivers the amino acids to the protein chain

How can a mutation be benficial
Can be beneficial by creating new genes and species through evolution

What is the difference between chromosomal alteration and sequential alteration
Chromosomal Alterations is a change to the actual chromosome. Sequential Alterations are when the nucleotide sequence is changed.

What is the difference between silent and missence point mutations
Silent- does not change the amino acid
Missence- causes one incorrect amino acid & makes a faulty protein

What is the result of a nonsence point mutation
early STOP codon

How does a “frameshift” mutation alter the “reading frame” of mRNA
It deletes or inserts one or more nucleotides to the sequence

Summarize the process of genetic engineering
Remove a piece of DNA from one chromosome and add it to another chromosome

What can gel electrophoresis be used for
Paternity tests, Criminal Investigations, Identifying Remains, Comparing DNA Samples

Summarize the process of gel electrophoresis
Use restriction enzymes to cut DNA, add samples to a tray filled with gel, charge the try with an electric current