Study Guide: Molecular Genetics

What type of bio molecule is DNA
nucleic acid
What monomer makes up DNA
nucleotide
What does DNA stand for
Deoxyribosenucleic acid
Where is DNA located
nucleus
A replicated chromosome is made up of identical…
Sister chromatids
What does DNA store
genetic info
Sister chromatids attach at the what
centromere
Who discovered DNA is the genetic material of living things
Hershey & Chase
What does DNA coil around
Histones
Who discovered the molecular structure of DNA
Watson & Crik
DNA is also called a
double helix
Whose X-ray was used to figure out DNA’s molecular structure
Rosalind Frankin
What kind of back-bone supports DNA
Sugar phosphate backbone
What is found on the 5′ end of DNA
Phosphate
What is found on the 3′ end of DNA
Deoxyribose
The letters of DNA represent
nitrogrenous bases
What does “A” represent
Adenine
What does “G” represent
Guanine
What does “C” represent
Cytosine
What does “T” represent
Thymine
What does “U” represent
Uracil
What base is NOT on DNA
Uracil
What base is not on RNA
Thymine
What are adenine and guanine classified as
Pruines
What are cytosine and thymine classified as
Pyrimidines
Which base pairs up with thymine
Adenine
Which base pairs up with cytosine
Guanine
How many hydrogen bongs connect adenine and thymine
2
How many hydrogen bases connect guanine and cytosone
3
What is the structure of purines
2 rings of carbon
What is the structure of pyrimidines
1 ring of carbon
What connects base pairs
Hydrogen pairs
When does DNA replication occur
Interphase
Which enzyme breaks they hydrogen bonds between base pairs
DNA Helicase
A replication bubble is made of two
Replication forks
Which enzyme builds a new DNA strand in the 5′ to 3′ direction
DNA polymerase
Which enzyme forms bonds between adjacent nucleotides
DNA ligase
How many DNA molecules are present at the end of DNA replication
2
How many strands does RNA have
1
What sugar is present in DNA
Deoxyribose
What sugar is present in RNA
Ribose
What does the m in mRNA stand for
Messanger
What does the r in rRNA stand for
Ribosomal
What does the t in tRNA stand for
Transfer
Which type of RNA holds amino acids
tRNA
Which type of RNA has codons
mRNA
Which type of RNA carries the DNA’s instruction to the ribosome
mRNA
what type of RNA has anti codons
tRNA
To which part of the sugar-phosphate backbone does the nitrogenous base attach
Sugar
What is made at the end of the Central Dogma
Protein
What is the starting molecule for the Central Dogma
DNA
Where does transricption take place
Nucleus
What is made during transcription
mRNA copy
Where does DNA translation take place
Cytoplasm (ribosome)
Which organelle is the protein factory
Ribosome
What are the monomers of protein
Amino acids
How many bases are in one codon
3
How many amino acids match with one codon
1
What happens at the end of traslation
It becomes folded
What is a change in DNA and RNA called
Mutation
What causes mutations
Mutagens
Can DNA mutations occur randomly
Yes
What is it called when a cell has an extra chromosome
Trisomey
What is it called when a cell has one less chromosome
Monosomey
What type of Chromosomal Alteration cuts out a section of the chromosome
Deletion
What type of Chromosomal Alteration causes 2 chromosomes to exchange places
Translocation
What type of mutation changes a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence
Point mutation
What mutation causes a single amino acid to change and produce a faulty protein
Missence point mutation
What type of mutation causes the reading frame of the mRNA to change
Frameshift
In genetic engineering, what kind of enzymes are used to cut DNA
Restriction enzymes
What is a piece of bacterial DNA called
Plasmid (vector)
What is the method that is used to separate and analyse a sample of DNA
Gel electrophoresis
What is Chargaff (and what year)
1950, complementary base pairing
Hershey & Chase
1952, DNA (not protein) was genetic material
Watson & Crik
1953, Discovered DNA’s molecular structure
Crik
1956, Created Central Dogma
What does it mean to say DNA is anti-parallel
It is anti-parallel because they are side by side but they build in opposite directions
Why is DNA replication called semi-conservative
After replication one daughter cell is paired with one parent cell
Helicase
breaks hydrogen bonds
Ploymerase
builds up complement strands
Ligase
forms bonds of adjacent nucleotides
DNA and RNA similarities
Both nucleic acids, both have 4 nitrogenous bases
DNA and RNA differences
DNA has two strands, RNA has 1
DNA sugar- Deoxyribose, RNA sugar- Ribose
DNA Shape- Double Helix, RNA shape- random
The process of transcription
Gene is read in nucleus and copied into mRNA so it can leave the nucleus
The process of translation
Ribosomes read the mRNA code and matches the appropriate codons with the right anti-condons found in tRNA. tRNA delivers the amino acids to the protein chain
How can a mutation be benficial
Can be beneficial by creating new genes and species through evolution
What is the difference between chromosomal alteration and sequential alteration
Chromosomal Alterations is a change to the actual chromosome. Sequential Alterations are when the nucleotide sequence is changed.
What is the difference between silent and missence point mutations
Silent- does not change the amino acid
Missence- causes one incorrect amino acid & makes a faulty protein
What is the result of a nonsence point mutation
early STOP codon
How does a “frameshift” mutation alter the “reading frame” of mRNA
It deletes or inserts one or more nucleotides to the sequence
Summarize the process of genetic engineering
Remove a piece of DNA from one chromosome and add it to another chromosome
What can gel electrophoresis be used for
Paternity tests, Criminal Investigations, Identifying Remains, Comparing DNA Samples
Summarize the process of gel electrophoresis
Use restriction enzymes to cut DNA, add samples to a tray filled with gel, charge the try with an electric current