Study Guide for Module 5 – Biology

Matter
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space

Model
Model
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen

Element
Element
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons

Molecules
Molecules
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together

Physical Change
Physical Change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.

Chemical Change
Chemical Change
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance

Phase
Phase
One of three forms- solid, liquid, or gas- which every substance is capable of attaining.

Diffusion
Diffusion
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Concentration
Concentration
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent

Semipermeable membrane
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through

Osmosis
Osmosis
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration

Catalyst
Catalyst
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.

Organic Molecule
Organic Molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous

Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones

Isomers
Isomers
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula

Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms

Disaccharides
Disaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides

Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

Dehydration Reaction
Dehydration Reaction
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water

Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

Hydrophobic
Hydrophobic
Lacking affinity for water, water hating

Saturated Fat
Saturated Fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms

Unsaturated Fat
Unsaturated Fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms

Peptide Bond
Peptide Bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.

Hydrogen Bond
Hydrogen Bond
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules.

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