# Stats Final Exam

The independent variable matches which ANOVA terms?
Factor
The term CONDITION matches which of the following ANOVA terms?
Level or treatment
Differences in scores produced by the independent variable corresponds with which of the following ANOVA terms?
Treatment effect
In ANOVA, an independent variable that is studied using independent samples in all conditions is called a…
Between-Subjects ANOVA
An independent variable that is studied using related samples in all conditions is called a…
Within-Subjects ANOVA
What is the desired outcome of an ANOVA?
Determine if there is a significant relationship.
In terms of hypotheses, one of the major differences between the t-test and ANOVA is that…
A t-test can have direction, ANOVA is just trying to figure out if a relationship exists.
What is the appropriate Alternative Hypothesis for ANOVA?
Ha: not all μ’s are equal
When Fobt is not significant, what does that mean?
No significant differences between any means.
The experiment has failed to demonstrate a relationship.
Post Hoc comparisons are used in a one-way ANOVA to compare all possible…
Pairs of means from a factor, one pair at a time, to determine which means differ significantly.
Previously, we’ve referred to the result of dividing a sum of squares by degrees of freedom as variance. In an ANOVA, this is referred to as…
Mean Square
When Tukey’s HSD test is used, two means are significantly different if the absolute difference between them is…
Absolute difference between two means is GREATER THAN the HSD.
When an experiment design has two factors and both factors are tested using related samples, we should perform a…
Two-way, within-subjects ANOVA
A major reason for conducting a study with two factors is to…
A two-factor design tells us everything about the influence of each factor that we would learn if it were the only independent variable.
We can also study the interaction, which we’d otherwise miss.
If you are interested in how well students perform on a standardized math achievement test after they have completed a six-week math unit in either a computer-assisted class, a videotaped course, or a regular classroom, what kind of design do you have?
One-way design
In a two-way ANOVA, a CELL represents…
A small square produced by combining a level of Factor A with a level of Factor B.
What are the assumptions we must satisfy when conducting a two-way, between-subjects ANOVA?
Each cell contains an independent sample.
The dependent variable measures normally distributed interval or ratio scores.
The populations have homogeneous variance.
In a two-way ANOVA, the MAIN EFFECT of a factor is…
The effects that changing the levels of that factor has on dependent scores, while we ignore all other factors in the study.
A two-way ANOVA contains…
2 factors and interaction.
For which of the three F-tests in a two-way ANOVA do you collapse across the levels of the other factor(s) in computing the means?
Fa and Fb
In a two-way ANOVA, the hypotheses for a Factor B that has four levels are…
Ho: μ1=μ2=μ3=μ4
Ha: not all μ’s are equal
In a two-way ANOVA, an F involving a comparison among the means of the cells is referred to as a test for the significance of…
Faxb
In a two-way ANOVA, the INTERACTION EFFECT is…
Present when the relationship between one factor and the dependent scores changes with, or depends on, the level of the other factor that is present.
It indicates that the influence that one factor has on scores depends on which level of the other factor is present.
A significant interaction effect indicates…
That at least two of the cell means differ significantly in a way that produces an interaction effect.
An interaction effect that is NOT significant indicates that…
The influence of one factor is not the same for each of the other factors.
In a two-way ANOVA, if Faxb is significant, which of the following is true?
At least two of the cell means differ significantly in a way that produces an interaction effect.
In a two-way ANOVA, the values of n and k…
May be different for each factor.
Nonparametric procedures are usually not our first choice among statistical procedures because…
Nonparametric procedures are not as powerful as parametric procedures.
When are nonparametric procedures used instead of parametric procedures?
Ordinal or nominal data.
Populations are severely skewed.
Do not have homogeneous variance.
In a chi-square procedure we test whether, “the frequencies in each category in the sample data…
Represent specified frequencies in the population.
Which chi-square tests whether our sample data are likely to represent the distribution of frequencies in the population when Ho is true?
Goodness-of-fit test
The sum of the observed frequencies from all categories must equal…
N
The chi-square goodness-of-fit test is so named because it tests…
How “good” the “fit” is between our data and the Ho model.
The null hypothesis in the chi-square test for goodness-of-fit is…
Ho: all the frequencies in the population are equal
In a one-way chi-square test, the null hypothesis states that if the observed frequencies do not equal the expected frequencies, it is…
Due to sampling error.
In the context of chi-square, expected frequency is the frequency we…
Expect in a category if the sample data perfectly represent the distribution in the population described by the Null Hypothesis.
A significant one-way chi-square indicates that the…
Differences between our observed and expected frequencies are very unlikely to occur if our data represent no relationship in the population.
Assume that you have conducted a one-way chi-square in which the Ho is that the frequencies in the categories are equal. If the chi-square was not significant, the appropriate conclusion is…
There is insufficient evidence to support that there is a significant difference.
Which of the following is actually a test of whether there is an interaction between two variables?
Two-Way Chi Square or Test of Interaction
The two-way chi-square is a test of…
Only what is essentially the interaction (the influence of one variable depends of the other).
It tests whether the frequency that participants fall into the categories of one variable depends on the frequency of falling into the categories on the other variable.
The null hypothesis in the chi-square test for independence is…
Ho: The frequencies in the categories of one variable are independent of those of the other variable
According to Ho, if the observed frequencies do not equal the expected frequencies in each cell of a chi-square for independence, it is because…
Of sampling error.
The alternative hypothesis for the two-way chi-square states…
Ha: Category membership on the two variables in the population is dependent (correlated)
A significant two-way chi-square indicates the…
Sample data are likely to represent two variables that are dependent (or correlated) in the population.
A researcher wanted to know which type of toy 3-year-olds like to play with. The researcher placed a tricycle, blocks, a train set, and puzzles in a room and observed how many of 20 children played with each type of toy. The k for this study is…
4
In a 2×2 design with 40 participants equally distributed across the conditions, what are ka and na?
ka=2
na=10+10=20
An educational psychologist is interested in determining whether attitudes toward school change with age. She randomly selects 30 seventh-graders, 30 ninth-graders, and 30 eleventh-graders and administers a “Do you like school?” test. In terms of ANOVA symbols, what is the value of N in the experiment?
N=90
An experimenter studies the effect of type of music during practice on recall of word lists using rock background music for 20 subjects, classical music for 22 others, and country/western for another 25. How many levels are there in the experiment?
3
An educational psychologist is interested in determining whether attitudes toward school change with age.