Spring 2014 Special Education Masters Comprehensive Exam

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Which of the following represents the legally correct position of IEP development within planning of special education services?
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Evaluation, development of IEP, placement
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Ms. Smith, a second grade teacher, has concerns about Bruce’s progress in math. Before she makes a referral for special education, she should
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discuss her concerns with Bruce’s parents
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The legal term related to the stipulation that placement of exceptional children must be chosen from a continuum of alternative placements is
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Least restrictive environment.
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An IFSP focuses on the
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Family and the child with a disability.
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Which poses the most difficulty for most children with learning disabilities?
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Reading
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Students with ADHD receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in which category?
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Other health impaired
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Two methods frequently employed to monitor behavioral progress are
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Curriculum-based measurement and direct observation.
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The term “hard of hearing” is used to describe people with hearing impairment who
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have enough residual hearing to process sound with a hearing aid.
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People who say that deafness should not be considered a disability argue that
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although deafness is a handicap, it is not a disability.
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A person who is legally blind has visual acuity in the better eye even with corrective lenses equal to or less than
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20/200.
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Social adjustment problems for children with visual impairment are most likely the result of
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society’s reaction to people who are blind.
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Use of compressed speech enables students with blindness to
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listen to recorded texts at a faster rate.
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Educators of students with autistic spectrum disorder are putting increasing emphasis on applying behavioral psychology in
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structured settings and controlled environments.
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Which intervention for autism spectrum disorders seems to have the strongest scientifically based research support?
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Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
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A term used in IDEA referring to manual or electronic means by which a person who is unable to communicate through normal speech can express wants and needs, share information, engage in social closeness, or manage social etiquette is
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augmentative or alternative communication.
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Impairments that a child is born with are referred to as
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congenital anomalies.
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Cerebral palsy is classified by
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the limbs involved and type of motor disability.
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For children with most physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is
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erratic school attendance.
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What services are mandated by federal law for students who are gifted?
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None; services are not required by federal law.
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The most important characteristic of exceptional learners is
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their abilities.
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Response to intervention (RTI)
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can be applied to behavior and academic learning.
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Frequent measures that provide information on whether a student is learning as expected include all of the following EXCEPT
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outcome measures
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The classification system that is most commonly used by school system personnel to describe levels of intellectual disabilities is based on
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IQ score
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Effective transition programs for students with intellectual disabilities involve
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community adjustment, vocational training and employment.
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Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are
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externalizing and internalizing.
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Which of the following statements about informed consent is TRUE?
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Written parental consent is required before beginning assessment.
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One goal of the pre-referral step in the assessment process is to determine
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if response to intervention (RTI) activities or additional student assessments are necessary.
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Alternative assessments approaches are used to
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enable students with severe disabilities to participate in large- scale assessments.
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Curriculum-based assessments
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measure a student’s performance with respect to a well-defined skill domain.
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The arithmetic average of a group of scores is the
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mean.
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When Igor was in second grade, he received a Grade Equivalent score of 4.2 on the reading subtest of an achievement test. Therefore, we can be sure that
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Based on the information presented, none of the above interpretations are known to be certain.
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A student who scored at the 75th percentile on a test
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scored as well or better than 75% of her peers.
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Grade equivalent scores are
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often interpreted inappropriately.
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What term refers to the consistency of scores over time or across items of a test?
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Reliability
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Accommodations for an assessment procedure refers to
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changes to the assessment that do not alter the instructional level, content, or assessment criteria.
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Ms. Jones has a student who often does not work on assignments during independent work time. Ms. Jones began a point system with the student for work completion and evaluated the results after 3 weeks. This is an example of
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pre-referral assessment.
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Ann was tested with a reading test that had a reliability correlation coefficient of .93 and was normed on a population that was constructed following best practice guidelines for test standardization. How sure can we be of her reading score? That is, for what purpose could someone feel comfortable using the score?
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major decision making (i.e., determining eligibility for Special Education services)
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The_______represents the ending point (or place) in a standardized test above which all higher numbered, more difficult test items would not be answered correctly.
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ceiling
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When developing performance-based assessments, a teacher should
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decide what is important for students to know and be able to do.
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Which of the following would be considered a possible reward for performance on high-stakes or accountability tests?
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high-school diploma
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Which type of assessment is useful in the Response to Intervention process?
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informal assessment
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An important part of the informed consent process is
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providing the parents a copy of parental rights regarding assessment procedures
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An accommodation for a writing assessment might be
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use of a computer instead of paper and pencil
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Assessment for progress monitoring is considered
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formative assessment
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Curriculum-based measurement helps teachers
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compare students’ progress in relation to their expected growth rates
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When assessing English Language Learners, the special educator must consider the
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student’s proficiency in English and in the home language
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Testing accommodations include all of the following EXCEPT
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using a shortened version of the test
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A disadvantage of a rating scale is that it
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may lack interrater reliability
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Which of the following statements about norm-referenced tests is true?
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Use of norm-referenced tests may result in labeling or mislabeling of students
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On a norm-referenced test, the score that simply represents the sum of the points or the items the student answered correctly is called a
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raw score
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Attention, discrimination, organization, and memory are the four steps of what?
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Information processing
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Speech:
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Requires neuromuscular coordination and is the verbal means of communication.
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A set of rules which specify word, phrase, and clause order, sentence organization, and relationships between words, word classes, and other sentence elements is:
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Syntax.
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An example of pragmatics is:
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Learning how far to stand away from someone when talking.
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A child saying “no spoon” while pointing to a fork is a type of:
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Semantic error.
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A child that says “poon” instead of “spoon” made what type of error?
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Phonological error
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Which researcher believed behavior does not affect language development?
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Chomsky
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The emerging language stage involves:
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Communicative intent.
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Examples of the four types of narratives are:
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Self-generated story Familiar tale Retelling of a movie Personal experience recounting
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Which of the following is false?
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A three year old should be understood at least 75% of the time to an unfamiliar listener.
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According to the sociolinguistic model, the motivation for language use and acquisition is
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effective communication
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Helping students paraphrase definitions in order to identify key concepts encoded by the word and then helping students distinguish the new word’s critical feature is an example of which component of language?
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Semantics
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A system for relaying and interpreting messages and ideas is:
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Communication
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Which of the following is true?
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Receptive language is the decoding process of language; and expressive language is the encoding process of language.
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Which of the following is an example of phonology?
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A child who substitutes W for R and L sounds.
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The initial phase of development of joint reference is characterized by
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joint attending
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Which of the following statements is false regarding non-verbal children?
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May be impossible to teach them proper communication.
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Which of the following is true?
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Language is the code used in communication. Speech is a motor act and also a model of communication.
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Which of the following is NOT a strong factor in the success of successive second language learning?
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age of the preadolescent child
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Language is a unique vehicle for __________.
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thought
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When incoming information matches an existing scheme, and, therefore, can be incorporated into it, the cognitive process is called
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assimilation
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Which toy would a child who produces no words be more likely to play with?
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blocks
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Approximately __________of what toddlers say is an imitation of other speakers.
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20%
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Which of the following utterances would count as 2 morphemes?
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Mama’s
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Caregivers exaggerate facial expression and voice, and vocalize more often in order to provide what for an infant?
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appropriate level of stimulation
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Sometimes behaviors occur at the same time as each other. Which form would you use to gather information on behaviors that occur simultaneously?
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Functional assessment observation form
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Functional behavior is NOT:
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A quick fix.
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A process of looking for patterns in what happens around and/or to the student just before and just after the problem behavior is:
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Functional behavioral assessment.
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The goal of a functional assessment is to:
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Alter the environment to promote children’s appropriate behavior, and to teach them more adaptive and acceptable ways to get what they want.
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A behavior intervention plan:
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Is used only when the student engages in unwanted behavior.
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All of the following are salient elements of a BIP for a preschooler, except:
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Vocational transition goals.
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A graph of collected data on a child’s challenging behavior should always include all but the following:
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A changing criterion design
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Negative reinforcement is when
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Something the child does like is taken away to increase replacement behavior
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Every time his teacher places a math worksheet on his desk, Tommy begins to scream and cry. You may hypothesize that the function of his behavior is
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Escape
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When a student is no longer interested in a previously identified high reinforcer
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He has probably reached satiation
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An example of a primary reinforcer is
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A chocolate milkshake
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Another name for secondary reinforcers is
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Conditioned reinforcers
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An example of a social reinforcer is
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Smiles
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The most powerful reinforcement schedule to maintain a behavior is
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An intermittent schedule
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Time out actually means
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Time out from positive reinforcement
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Touching a hot stove and getting burned is an example of
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Unconditioned aversive stimuli
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Johnny always waits until his teacher repeats the question 3 times before answering, he most likely
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Is prompt dependent
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An example of a visual prompt is
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Writing the directions on the board
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The gradual removal of prompts is called
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Fading
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In order to teach a more complex behavior
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You should first do a task analysis of the behavior
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A competing behavior pathway asks team members to develop strategies for all of the following areas EXCEPT:
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Metacognitive strategies
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In a competing behavior pathway, which step describes the behavior that the typical peer would be expected to exhibit under the conditions described?
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Desired alternative
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In a general education classroom, whenever Caesar is asked to do a difficult assignment, he refuses to follow directions, swears at his teacher, and hits the students around him with the function of the behavior being work avoidance. Which of the following would be an acceptable alternative behavior to teach Caesar in a behavioral intervention plan?
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Ask for help on the assignment
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If, on a school campus, more than 50% of behavioral referrals to the administrative office come from less than 10% of the classrooms, the following behavior systems need to be addressed first before working with individual students:
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Classroom
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A teacher is teaching a replacement behavior to a student with a disability. On the first day, the student exhibits the replacement behavior correctly on two occasions prior to lunch, and then exhibits the inappropriate behavior when returning from lunch. The teacher should take this opportunity to:
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Implement an error correction strategy to reteach the steps of the replacement behavior
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Which principle is the keystone in the family-professional partnership arch?
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Trust
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A family-centered approach includes ALL but ONE of the following characteristics:
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Professionals at the center of the planning universe
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Practices for enhancing trust with families include ALL but ONE of the following:
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Establishing power-over relationships
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Recommended technological mediums for communicating with parents include ALL but ONE of the following:
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Hidden cameras
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Research indicates that the presence of a child with a disability may have the following impact on marital relationships:
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All of the above
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Which activity is most likely to lead to the development of a trusting partnership with a family?
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Identifying and being responsive to family priorities
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Parental choice is a guiding force in:
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
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The procedure to determine whether a child has a disability and, if so, the nature and extent of special education services that the child needs is a/an:
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Evaluation
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Factors influencing a families’ disposition to trust professionals include all of the following EXCEPT:
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The number of children in a family
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Interactions that strengthen family-professional relations include:
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Viewing your interactions with families as conversations
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Appropriate strategies for sharing assessment findings with parents include ALL but ONE of the following:
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First present the test results and then identify the developmental or content area that was assessed
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This process analyzes the student’s strengths and needs within an instructional setting and then provides the student and teacher with assistance to help the student to learn without providing special education services:
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Pre-referral
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Principles of partnership include:
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parity
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If parents do not consent to an evaluation and if school personnel refuse to seek alternatives to a full evaluation, the parents and school:
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Must first attempt to resolve the conflict through mediation
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_______ would best be described as a teacher who is “there” and “with it,” nodding their head slightly from time to time and reflecting what the parent is saying.
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Active listeners
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According to Kroth, when a child is diagnosed with a disability, parents may view the situation as a
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‘death’
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In order to build a collaborative relationship with parents, a teacher
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may provide a handbook with classroom procedures included
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When parents disagree with an evaluation provided by a public agency (school), they have the right to
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an independent evaluation
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The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
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ensures that a student with a disability has the right to be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with peers who do not have disabilities
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The term family can be described as
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Two or more people who regard themselves as family
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Research indicates that parent conferences held before the school year begins results in
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improved student grades, higher student attendance, fewer disciplinary problems
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NCLB provides parents with the ability to request
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a transfer for their child to a high performing school
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A key component of the Archways Model of Family Involvement is
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Respect
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The Mirror Model of Family Involvement focuses on
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Assessing parental needs and strengths
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The educator must communicate to the parent that the educator is there to
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form a team with the parents to work for the best interests of the child
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What are the pivotal areas or behaviors that are central to a wide area of functioning identified by Koegel and Koegel?
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responding to multiple cues, child motivation, self-management, and child initiations
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Who developed PRT?
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Koegel and Koegel
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Incidental Teaching
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occurs in the naturalistic environment
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PECS was developed by
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Bondy and Frost
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When is a skill considered learned?
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when the student can demonstrate the behavior in different settings, with different people, in response to different natural cues, and over time
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What is the difference between prompts and natural cues?
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a support person provides a prompt and a natural cue happens in everyday settings
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According to Bondy, how can we tell if a skill is functional?
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by asking ourselves, “If the child can’t perform the skill, who will do it for him/her?”
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Errorless Teaching is a teaching strategy that involves
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using a prompting hierarchy that leads the student to the correct response and reinforces the correct response
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Which of the following is NOT a consideration when selecting functional objectives:
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the availability of services within the school and district
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A major objective of functional behavior assessment (FBA) is to:
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determine the function of a behavior in order to promote new behavior that serves the same function as the current behavior, but is socially acceptable and responsible
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What is providing a student with information and answers before they are presented with an activity or enter a social interaction?
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Antecedent Based Intervention
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The Hidden Curriculum refers to
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the social rules that are not generally taughtbutmostpeoplelearn naturally
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The process of demonstrating a behavior for a student to imitate
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shaping
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Accommodations for children with autism are
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developed as a collaborative effort of an IEP team
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When organizing a room for children with autism, the teacher needs to consider the
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one-on-one work areas, independent work areas, whole group, functional areas, and supervision needs
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The preferred method of behavioral data collection to determine the function of the behavior is ____________ .
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ABC recording
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Which of the following represents an example of the Premack Principle?
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telling a child to eat his vegetables, then he can have dessert
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This is the process of breaking down the task, prioritizing, and ordering incremental steps.
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Task analysis
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This strategy offers the greatest opportunity for an individual with ASD to practice generalization.
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Self-monitoring
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Which of the following constitutes a prompt?
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Physically helping an individual perform a task
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Before you use a chaining procedure, it is recommended that you task analyze the skill to be taught. What does it mean to task analyze a skill?
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Make a sequential list of all the smaller substeps of the task to be trained
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In this instructional strategy, students are taught to put multiple behaviors together in succession
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Chaining
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You would like to decrease the number of times a student sharpens her pencil during class. However, you don’t want to completely eliminate this behavior. Which type of reinforcement program makes the most sense?
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DRL
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Operant learning theory
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focuses on observed behaviors, antecedents, and consequences that control behavior
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When a target behavior transfers across settings, persons, and materials, which stage of learning has been completed?
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generalization
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All of the following are true regarding PECS except:
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Always leads to verbal communication.
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AAC is an abbreviation for:
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Augmentative and alternative communication.
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The child makes eye contact with the partner while gesturing or vocalizing, can alternate his gaze between an object and the partner. This is an example of:
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Joint attention
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Choice making will:
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Give a child some degree of control d. over their life with all its inherent rewards, risks, and consequences.
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Putting child desired items in sight but out of reach such as toys, preferred games, and snack foods is an example of what type of communicative strategy?
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Communicative intent
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What percent of individuals with autism spectrum disorders do not develop enough functional speech to meet daily communication needs?
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30-50%
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An example of an aided visual support is:
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The child is given a schedule board for the day’s activities.
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Visual schedules, token economies, first/then strips, social stories, and break cards are examples of:
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Receptive communication.
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Which of the following is false?
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A teacher should never allow the student to have a choice in his/her daily schedule.
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If a challenging behavior has a particular communicative function, and we can teach a socially acceptable behavior achieving the same function, then the latter might replace the former. This is:
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Functional communication training.
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All of the following are misconceptions of PECS except:
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There are no prerequisites to the implementation of PECS
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Phase 2 of PECS includes:
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Traveling to the communication c. book and to the communication partner to complete exchange.
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A PECS communication book should be kept:
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In an agreed-upon place where the child has independent access.
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What is the main reason we should use routines when working with children with autism?
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It creates structure and predictability for the student and increases independence.
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AAC devices:
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Are used by verbal and nonverbal individuals.
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Communication:
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Transfers ideas from one person to another person.
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Choose one example of unaided communication:
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Head nod
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An example of a low-tech device would be:
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Pencil grip
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A Functional Behavioral Assessment is used to identify:
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Triggers and maintaining consequences
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Which of following is an advantage to Functional Communication Training?
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It teaches the use of language to manipulate the environment through inappropriate behavior.
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When choosing an AAC device for students, it is important to consider all of the following EXCEPT:
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Graphic and lexical symbols
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SETT stands for:
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Student, Environment, Tasks, and Tools
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AT devices are sometimes ________________ because of lack of training, inadequate follow-up, and maintenance/ repair of device.
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Abandoned
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The main purpose of progress monitoring is
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to track progress.
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The most important activity for building the skills necessary for long-term success in reading is
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fostering phonemic awareness.
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Which of the following is a rime?
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ope
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A technique especially designed to help students locate the sources of answers is
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question-answer-relationship.
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Decodable texts are useful to include in materials for early reading programs primarily because such texts:
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give children practice applying phonic associations that already have been taught.
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Which of the following is NOT an aspect of word recognition?
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Decoding
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A major factor in reading comprehension is the reader’s
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Prior knowledge
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The highest grade level of material a reader can read comfortably, with good comprehension and couple significant miscues, is the reader’s __________ level
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Independent
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A set of grade-leveled text passages arranged in order from easiest to hardest with sets of accompanying comprehension questions is referred to as
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A text gradient
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When we consider the degree to which a reader’s miscues change the meaning of a sentence, we are considering
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Dialect variation
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Readers’ self-reports about their thinking processes during reading are called
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Think-alouds
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A portion of text with words systematically deleted is called a
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Cloze procedure
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“Concept of Word” includes all of the following EXCEPT
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Front and Back of book
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The word elephant has
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Seven phonemes
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Expository text is
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Non-fiction
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Two important factors in the anticipation phase of a lesson are
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Motivation and activation of background knowledge
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The ability to distinguish between highly similar sounds is called
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Auditory discrimination
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Which of the following is NOT one of the five “Big Ideas” in reading?
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Prosody
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A ___________ sound is a sound that can be said for several seconds without distorting the sound.
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Continuous
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A ___________ word is one in which each letter represents its most common sound
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Regular
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Which of the following best describes a morpheme?
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The smallest part of a word that has a distinctive meaning
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The largest minority group population by ethnicity in the United States is,
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Latino/Hispanic
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Native Americans place a high value on
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Extended family
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Asian Americans are often viewed as the
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Model minority
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Strategies, techniques, and approaches used by teachers in their classrooms are known as
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Pedagogy
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The most common pedagogical approaches in schools today include all of the following EXCEPT
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Critical thinking
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Current pedagogical practices are largely based on all of the following EXCEPT
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Competition
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Learning preferences of White or Anglo-American students favor:
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Self-directedness
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Learning preferences of Latino students favor all of the following EXCEPT:
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Assertiveness
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Martin Haberman’s “pedagogy of poverty” includes all of the following variables EXCEPT
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Rigor
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Cultural beliefs that attribute meaning and significance are referred to as
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Cultural norms
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A social group composed of people who share a sense of common origins is referred to as
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Ethnicity
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A set of priorities that guide such notions as good, bad, fair, and unfair is referred to as
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Cultural values
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The placement of students into static groups based on academic ability, without input from ongoing assessment, is referred to as
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Tracking
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Freire (1970) calls the system of education where the teacher’s task is “to fill the students with the contents of his narration” the
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Banking system of education
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Freire (1970) calls the moment when individuals realize that oppressive societies are not in the best interests of the people the moment of
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Praxis
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The belief that one’s ethnic or cultural group is the most important and that all other ethnic or cultural groups are measured in relation to their own is defined as:
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Ethnocentrism
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When teachers are presented with multicultural issues and they state that there is no way the information can be true, according to Clark and Zygmunt-Fillwalk (2010) this teacher has responded in what way?
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Disbelief
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If Caucasian children see Asian American children perform well during a math quiz and receive high praise from the teacher, and then begins to think, “I guess that all Asian Americans must be good at math,” they are in which of the following stages of prejudice formation?
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Cognitive component stage
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During economically difficult times, the number of families living in poverty greatly increases due to job loss, lower numbers of job openings, and higher interest rates. This can be defined as:
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Situational poverty
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Payne (2005) defines resources that support students in developing academic skills necessary for operation in daily society as:
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Mental resources
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The federal law that expands the federal hate crimes definition to include crimes motivated by a victim’s actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability is called:
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Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
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Research indicates that students with disabilities tend to have views about the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community that are:
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Similar to their caregivers
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When someone decides not to espouse prejudices and biases but does not make any attempt to change the status quo, a person has made the choice to be a:
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Bystander
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The highest number of English Language Learners in public schools tend to be in:
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High school
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One of the first Native American groups Columbus encountered on the island of Hispaniola, who were ultimately enslaved and tortured by Columbus and his men, were:
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The Arawaks
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Identify the instructional domain for the following lesson excerpt: Students have a sheet of addition facts (e.g., 2 + 3, 7 + 7), and are instructed that when the teacher says ‘Begin’ they are to write the answer to as many math facts as they can until she calls ‘Time’ after one minute.
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procedural knowledge
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Conceptual understanding frequently is taught using:
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the CRA instructional process
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Representational level instruction of the C-R-A process involves the use of:
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pictures of objects or tally marks
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A procedural strategy is
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a set of sequential steps leading to solution of a mathematics problem
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Naming a shape is a
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declarative knowledge task
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An algebraic function is:
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a special kind of relation in which two sets are related to each other in such a way that each element in the first set is related to exactly one element in the second set.
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A mathematical statement that represents equality is called an
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equation.
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One-to-one correspondence between groups means:
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each object in the first group is matched with exactly one object in the second group.
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Greater than is represented with the symbol:
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>
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The number-family approach for solving word problems involves teaching students that three numbers can be used to create:
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four math statements.
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Which of the following geometry tasks would require a procedural strategy?
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measuring an angle
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Locating a learned shape in the student’s environment is a
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declarative knowledge task
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The variable expression for 7 more than a number is:
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n + 7
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Functional relationships may be represented by all of the following EXCEPT:
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an abacus.
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According to Sayeski and Paulsen (2010), one reason that students with disabilities struggle with “reform curricula” is:
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Skills are taught using a spiraled curriculum (meaning nothing is taught to mastery).
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According to the National Math Advisory Panel (2008), assessment of math skills should focus on student progress towards:
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Mastery of skills related to algebra
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Which of the following is not one of the National Council of the Teaching of Mathematics content standards?
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Reasoning and proof
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Instructional delivery through the explicit teaching cycle should include all of the following considerations EXCEPT:
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A plan for frequent student responses
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Ashlock (2010) indicates that students should use a paper-and-pencil instructional method when learning new math skills because:
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It allows the teacher to see the students’ thought processes and correct any errors
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Ashlock (2010) states that teachers should teach mathematical algorithms because:
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Algorithms provide a series of steps that lead students to the correct answer
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When answering a math problem, if students jump to conclusions before considering all of the information, they have most likely displayed what type of math misconception?
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Overspecialization
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When a student is adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number and makes the computation error of adding all of the digits (e.g., 74 + 5 = 16 (7+4+5 = 16)) but adds two digit numbers and two- digit numbers correctly (e.g., 74 + 75 = 149), which of the following instructional interventions might be appropriate:
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Teach students to look for a pattern
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According to Impecoven-Lind and Foegen (2010), algebra is considered a gateway to all of the following EXCEPT:
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Entrance into college
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Which of the following would be an inappropriate accommodation on a math assessment?
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Using representational drawings on a 3rd grade assessment
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If a teacher is trying to assess whether or not a student understands that a digit’s value in a numeral is determined by the place where it is written, which probing question might the teacher ask?
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“How do you know whether to use the tens or ones blocks for 2?”
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The increase in the number of persons with autism can be accounted for by all of the folloiwng EXCEPT
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Vaccinations
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The doctor who supported that refrigerator mothers caused autism was
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Kanner
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Persons with a diagnosis of autism must have deficits in these three areas:
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social, communication, restricted behaviors/interests
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Choice boards and choice making should be a part of the day for a student with autism because they allow for
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control over the environment, independence, motivation, and instruction in the context of the natural environment
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Sensory deficits
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may include hypo- or hyper-sensitivity in hearing, seeing, touching, tasting, and smelling
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Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests
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can occur in students with ASD, but may manifest differently for each student
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For most children with autism, social interaction:
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is not naturally reinforcing
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When teaching children with autism, teachers must choose teaching strategies that
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have been determined to be evidence based
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What is one reason why children with autism tend to be identified earlier than those with Asperger disorder?
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Pragmatic skills are easy to recognize at an early age
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What does ASD stand for?
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Autism Spectrum Disorders
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According to IDEA, at what age must transition planning begin?
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16
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Individuals with ASD often face this employment challenge
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lack of social skills
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When individuals with ASD lose their jobs, it is often because
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They do not have the needed social skills
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At what age do the symptoms of autism usually appear?
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Age 3 or younger
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High rates of ____________occur for children with ASD during their adolescent years
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anxiety and depression
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Environmental supports are
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based on the student’s needs
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The words “autistic” and “autism” come from the Greek word autos, meaning
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self
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Someone who exhibits echolalia would
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parrot what he or she hears
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Ten-month-old Bella looks at a toy, then looks at her mother. As she returns her attention to the toy, her mother also looks at it and they both laugh in enjoyment over the toy. This characteristic of typically-developing children, known as ____, may be used to identify children with ASD
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joint attention
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Which of the following would NOT be a component of an effective educational intervention for preschool students with ASD?
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use of ambiguous languages
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A student with a disability who brings a weapon to school may be placed in an interim alternative educational setting for up to ___ days.
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45
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During an anecdotal observation, the observer records:
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Everything observed about the individual’s behavior
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During a momentary time sample the observer records:
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Whether behavior occurred at a particular moment or not
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Event recording should be used when the target behavior is:
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Discrete
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Which of the following is a disadvantage in using self-reports to assess student behavior.
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Children tend to answer the way they perceive others would want them to answer.
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During an assembly the principal notices that Mr. Rogers’ 2nd grade class is getting restless. He moves over and stands behind Mr. Rogers’ class. This is an example of:
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Proximity control
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The systematic removal of reinforcers contingent on inappropriate behavior is a behavior reduction procedure called _____________.
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Response cost
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Moving a disruptive student away from the group art activity (which he enjoys) for a brief period of time is considered ____________.
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Timeout from reinforcement
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While conducting frequency recording, you find a student exhibited a behavior 13 times during a 15- minute period. What is the average amount of occurrences per minute?
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.86 times or about once per minute
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The purpose of a functional behavioral assessment is to
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identify the function(s) that a student’s problem behavior serves
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Escape and avoidance behaviors are possible outcomes when using
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aversive stimuli
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A behavior contract includes all of the following EXCEPT
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includes an expulsion clause
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A-B-C analysis is an example of
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direct observation
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If a teacher is collecting data on amount of time a student spends “on task” in a general education classroom environment, he or she would mostly likely use which method of data collection?
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Duration
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If a teacher is collecting data on the amount of time it takes for a student to comply with a request, he or she would most likely use which method of data collection?
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Latency
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Samantha, a 14-year old whose parents were recently divorced, calls out to the teacher daily during independent work time. Knowing that Samantha is going through a hard time, her teacher calls her into the hallway to talk about how she is doing. What is the most probable function of Samantha’s behavior?
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Attention seeking
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Reinforcements that are mediated by a students’ teachers, parents, or peers are called:
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Social reinforcers
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During which stage of the acting out cycle should a teacher debrief with the student about the impact of their behavioral outburst?
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Recovery
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If a student is taught to record the number of times a target behavior occurs within the classroom setting, they have most likely been taught what cognitive behavior modification?
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Self-monitoring
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When a student starts to talk out in class and the teacher walks over to the area of the room where the student is sitting, the teacher is most likely using what behavior reduction strategy?
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Proximity control
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A schedule in which reinforcement is delivered after an specific interval of time has elapsed, contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior during the interval is a:
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Fixed interval schedule
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Which of the following has been found to be an effect of school-wide positive behavior supports?
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Decrease in number of office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions due to clearer expectations for behavior.
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Failure to follow-through on verbal requests is an etiology for which of the following challenging behaviors?
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Noncompliant
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What is self-determination?
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Where the individual with a disability acts as a causal agent in their life
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Vocational rehabilitation counselors can help with?
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All of the above
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A reasonable accommodation in the workplace is defined as:
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Is a change in a way things are done within the workplace and allows individuals with disabilities to participate in the workplace in all aspects of the workplace
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The American with Disabilities Act went into effect in____________?
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1990
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Which president signed the American with Disabilities Act into effect?
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President Bush
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All of the following are examples of workplace supports for individuals with disabilities that may already exist EXCEPT
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Litigation supports
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The Individualized Transition Plan should consider the following goal areas:
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Postsecondary
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Self-determination is the ability of a person to
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act as the primary causal agent in his or her life
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Two critical elements of community-based transition are the need for
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work before graduation and connections with adult services and vocational rehabilitation
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Employers’ concerns about hiring individuals with disabilities include:
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costs associated with hiring and not being able to terminate employment
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Interdependence means
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individuals supporting others and receiving support from others
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Transferring knowledge from one environment to another is referred to as:
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generalization
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Transition assessments can be helpful in assessing students in the following areas:
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Preferences, vocational skills, and independent living skills
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Asking students about where they want to live is an assessment of:
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Preference
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The McGill Action Planning System was developed by:
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Marsha Forest
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CBI stands for
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Community Based Instruction
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What is wrong with the following objective: During career vocations training, Chris will stay with his class.
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Missing the criteria
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Before going into the community, the teacher should first:
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Call the site of interest
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Vocational Rehabilitation Services provides:
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Job experience for individuals with disabilities
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In the IEP, the vision for the future should be a direct quote from the:
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Student
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When choosing to implement a response cost, it is important for a teacher to remember which of the following ideas?
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The system of removal of reinforcements should be clearly explained to students prior to the implementation of response cost
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What must a student do in order to read?
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Be able to decode the letters
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When is it best to teach the mechanical skills of writing to struggling writers?
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Prior to instruction on the organization of an essay
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According to Simmons and Kame’enui (2003), in order to determine that a commercial reading program is effective, teachers should look for all of the following EXCEPT:
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Evidence of high levels of student engagement with the program

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