Sports Event Management

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
sport marketing
“The process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives” in a society responsible manner that creates a favorable exchange relationship
marketing plans
comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization’s marketing goals and objectives
marketing mix
the elements of product, price, place, promotion, which sport marketers alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives
product life cycle
the lifespan stages of a sport product include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline
internal factors
factors inside a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (players, owners, team management, staff personnel)
external factors
factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (media, corporate sponsors, advertisers, spectators, geography, culture, economy, federal regulations, regulations of sport governing bodies)
SWOT analysis
a management technique available to sport marketers to help them assess the strength and weaknesses of an organization and the opportunities and threats that it faces
the process of using a name, design, symbol, or any combination of the three to help differentiate a sport product from the competition
market segmentation
the process of identifying smaller and viable clusters of sport consumers who may exhibit similar wants, needs, and interests regarding sport
sport sponsorship
the acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate with a sport product or sporting event n order to derive benefits from the affiliation or association
promotions mix
the collection of integrated activities that seek to communicate, inform, and ultimately persuade consumers to participate in the sport consumption activity, experience or event
the comprehensive manner in which sport is distributed to consumers
marketing research
the systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data or information to evaluate and improve marketing practices
market segment
a portion of the population that is distinctive in terms of its needs, characteristics, or behavior
target market
market segments identified as the focus of an organization’s marketing efforts
extrinsic rewards
rewards given to a person by someone
intrinsic rewards
rewards received by a person from the experience itself
a distraction from a course or activity
positive levels of arousal provided to sport spectators
aspirational reference group
a group to which an individual wishes to belong
situational influence
the influence arising from factors that are particular to a specific time and place and are independent of individual costumers’ characteristics
need recognition
perception of a difference between a desired state and the actual situation; the first stage of the decision-making process
cognitive dissonance
feelings of anxiety or doubt that can occur after an important decision has been made
social media
web-based applications that enable people to share content such as information, opinions, and experiences
sport communication
a process by which people in sport, in a sport setting or through a sport endeavor, share symbols as they create meaning through interaction
varied results of communication in regard to its effect on audience members and society in general
strategic sport communication model (SSCM)
a model depicting the dynamics of communication and the various settings in which communication occurs in sport
print communication
communication through printed publications, including sport sections in newspapers, sport magazines, and sport books
electronic communication
communication by electronic media, including sports broadcasting on television (broadcast, cable, satellite), sports radio, sport firm (movies), and sport photography
new media
communication through nontraditional media platforms, most of them internet based an ranging from traditional websites to mobile applications to e-commerce systems
sport public relations
a managerial communication based function designed to identify a sport organization’s key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those key politics
one-way model of public relations
a communication model focusing exclusively on the flow of information from the sport organization to its publics
two-way model of public relations
a communication model focusing on communication give take between a sport organization and its key publics
community relations
often focuses on the promotion of charitable initiatives affiliated with the sport organization and the development of opportunities for face-to-face contact with sport organization stakeholders
the basic economic problem facing all institutions , including sport. a sport product is considered scarce if people want more of the product than is freely available for consumption
economic interaction
the exchange of one product of value to another product value
law of demand
consumers will demand less of a product as its price increases and more of a product as its price falls
the relationship between the price of a product and the amount of the product that suppliers are willing to produce and sell
law of supply
suppliers will increase production as the price of the product increasess and decrease production as the price falls
market equilibrium
the price at which the quantity demand equals the quantity supplied
market surplus
a price at which the quantity supplied of a product is greater than the quantity demanded
market shortage
a price at which the quantity demanded of a product is greater than the quantity supplied
sport economic impact studies
analyses of how expenditures on sport teams, events, or facilities economically affect a specific geographic region
moving the management of facilities from the public sector to private companies or organizations
securing and contracting one specific sport or entertainment event
generic document that uses standard language and a fill-in-the-blank format to outline expectations between parties
a prearranged, negotiated percentage used to divide various sources of revenue between the promoter and the facility
cost analysis
a systematic process used to provide an estimation of the revenues and expenses of an event
work order
a detailed document that illustrates all requirements of the event
American with Disabilities Act (ADA)
legislation that protects people with disabilities from discrimination. Specific to sport facilities, the law states that managers must provide reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities
reconciling the expenses and revenues of an event and dividing to a contracted arrangement
detailed records that describe the event
for purposes for this chapter, constituencies are any people influenced or effected by a particular decision
enactments made by a legislature and expressed in a formal document
a legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court may need to adopt when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. the term may laso refer to the collective body of case law that a court should consider when interpreting the law
stare decisis
literally means “to stand by things decided.” this principle expresses the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law, and followed accordingly
due process
as it is embodied in the 5th and 14th amendments to the united states constitution, due process ensures that a law shall not be unreasonably, arbitrary, or capricious and that the means selected for enforcing a law shall have a reasonable and substantial relation to the objective sought by the government
a civil wrong or injury for which the law permits a recovery. typically, the wrong or injury is either a negligent act or an international act by one person that causes an injury to another person or his or her property
proximate cause
a cause that directly produces an event without which the event would not have occurred
secondary legal research sources that seek to restate the legal rules that constitute the common law in particular area such as contracts, torts, properly, foreign relations, and product liability
common law
the body of law derived from the judgements and decrees of the courts rather than those laws created by legislatures
SWOT Analysis
strength, weakness, opportunities, threats
consumer decision making process
– recognizes a need or problem
-seeks information to resolve problem or fulfill a need
-determines purchase options
– evaluate alternatives
– make purchase decisions
– engages in post-purchase evaluations (was it worth it? or buyers remorse)
elements in communication process (4)
– sender
– message
– channel through which message is delivered
– receiver
multiplier effect
I earned 5 dollars working today and it will roll over into the economy
means if something was made before 1990 it is sort of exempt from ADA
4 P’s of Marketing
price, product, promotion, place`
Establishing your company or team identity through logo, color scheme, and the accumulated impact of ads is known as:
“To some fan, a high-scoring game is exciting. To other fans, it is boring.” This statement illustrates which of the following aspects of sport?
sport is subjective
When a sport organization develops a pricing strategy and analyzes laws pertaining to government regulations and the economic situation, it is taking into account which factor?
the following are ways that sport as a product differs from other goods and services;
the sport experience is intangible, sport is subjective and heterogeneous, sport is inconsistent and unpredictable, sport is perishable, and sport involves emotions
What are the tangible elements in the core sport product?
the type of sport, the participants, and the team
What is the objective of positioning a sport product?
to differentiate the sport product from competing products
This term refers to elements that interfere with reception of the message through communications channels
a communication model that focuses exclusively on the flow of information from the sport organization to its publics without a feedback channel is an example of:
one-way communication
the most important element of a crowd management plan, particularly when alcohol is being sold, is:
uniformed police
The most powerful influence on what sports events people attend or watch, or what products they buy, is;
friends and family
the practice of steering black athletes away from certain positions is known as:
The reason that scarce products like World Series Tickets cost more than regular season tickets is known as:
law of supply and demand
Who is directly responsible of creating the facility’s standard operating procedures and ensuring that these procedures are administered correctly?
facility manager
the safest type of seating for sporting event or concert is
reserved seating
the most important element of crowd control at an event where alcohol is being served is:
liability insurance
according to your textbook, the “stressful joy” that comes from the highs and lows of watching a favorite sports team play is
The major piece of legislation that is a factor in designing sport facilities is;
Americans with Disabilities Act
sorting your costumers into groups that can be identified by shared traits or habits is:
market segmentation
What marketing agency handles all of Elon’s sports sponsorship
According to your text, which of the following is the key feature of professional sports leagues?
the interdependence of the teams
the two “sides” to every pro sports franchise are:
the “player” side and the “business” side
Schools in this division of the NCAA offer no athletic scholarships
Division III
What is/are the typical function(s) of a high school athletics director?
coordinate and schedule the use of all athletics venues, provide the leadership and management of the interscholastic athletics program, hire officials and coaches, provide oversight to athletic booster club activities and fund-raising activities
the primary goal of state high school athletic associations is:
safeguards the well-being of student-athletes
according to Professor Schmitt during his guest lecture, what was a key to success in operating programs for the Cannon Street YMCA in Charleston?
partnerships with other organizations
What are the prongs or elements of sport tourism sustainability?
environment, economic, and social
A sport management agency that negotiated contracts for players would be:
a representation agency
A sport tourist who travels to Myrtle Beach to play golf would be considered
an active sport tourist
According to the text, what type of events often provide communities with more benefits and fewer costs, fewer obligations and no long-term debt
small-scale events
In well-run community sport programs, the emphasis on;
the participant’s experience
the primary reason(s) that communities are interested in hosting big sporting events
positive publicity for their community, economic impact, as an opportunity to upgrade
An organization’s culture is often manifested through;
myths or legends, significant historical events, objects, and logos, social events, award, recognition events, standards of dress and behavior
How does one start the critical thinking process?
by identifying the issue and the questions that must by asked
Roone Arledge was a pioneering sports television producer who;
introduced an entertainment element to sports TV
Money spent by sport participants, spectators, and sponsors in a community hosting a sporting event is called:
economic impact
Which of the following statements describes career paths in sport management?
success depends on good understanding of finance, marketing, and management
Skills that a person should be able to perform in a variety of industries, including sports organizations, are called
transferable skills
What will challenge sport in the future?
social responsibility & technology
research involving exclusively numerical data is:
quantitative research
breaking your audience into smaller groups to better understand them and market your product to them is known as
research can be best defined as
a systematic way to answer questions
sport marketing is
the marketing of sport products and all types of products through sports
to be an effective team member you must;
see team success as personal success
most careers in the business of sport began through
the building up or maintaining of informal relationships, especially with people who could bring advantages such as job or business opportunites
people who organize, manage, and assume the risks of a business or enterprise, often starting up new businesses by putting their own money
brand equity
building up recognition, loyalty, and an association of quality around your team or organization
authoritarian leadership
“my way or the highway” leadership. this means that the leader has a clear vision and wants things done his/her way no matter what anyone has to say about it.
Jackie Robinson
broke the baseball color barrier in 1947
Three things that supporters of high school athletics cite as the benefits of interscholastic programs
1. keeps kids in school
2. teaches them important values
3. keeps kids out of trouble
3 types of sport organization
1. public organization
2. nonprofit organization
3. commercial exams
10 managerial roles
figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor, diseminator, conducting, spokesperson, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
strength, weaknesses, opportunities, threats

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