Speech Unit 3

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What is Effective Delivery?
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delivery that enhances the message without distracting from it. appears conversational, natural, and spontaneous
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Ways to have effective Delivery
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1) select a topic that you have interest or deep convictions in 2) practice your speech, concentrating only on the basics
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What are the 4 modes of delivery
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1) extemporaneous 2) memorized 3) manuscript 4) impromptu
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Extemporaneous Mode of Delivery
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presenter often delivers a presentation from a keyword outline or from brief notes *not practiced to the point of memorization, the idea is to keep the content flexible enought to adapt to the audience
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Advantages of extemporaneous mode of delivery
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1) mode is most versatile- presenter can add or delete information based on audience’s responses 2) demands attention to all aspects of public speaking preparaton (topic selection, purpose, research,supporting materials) 3) invites rapid nonverbal response to audience feedback 4) presenter is talking with audience, not at audience 5) outline is easier to use as quick reference or guide
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disadvantages of extemporaneous mode of delivery
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if the presenter must be careful with every word, if every phrase needs to be exact, the presenter might more appropriately use another mode of speaking
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Memorized Mode of delivery
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presenter has committed a presentation to memory
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common places to find memorized mode of delivery
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oratory contest, the lecture circuit, and banquet speeches. Ceremonial occasions where little audience or topic adptation is expected or needed.
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advantages of memorized method of delivery
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1) permits maximum use of delivery skills 2) continuous eye contact 3) bodily movements and gestures are freer
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disadvantages of memorized method of delivery
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1) permits little or no adaptation during delivery 2) recovery is more difficult if you make a mistake 3) presentation sometimes sounds memorized
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Manuscript mode of delivery
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presenter writes out complete presentation in advance and then uses that manuscript to deliver the speech but without memorizing *most useful when presenter has to e precise, must avoid error, and must defend every word
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advantages of manuscript mode of delivery
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often boost the confidence of beginning presenter who need the security of their manuscrpt
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disadvantages of manuscript mode of delivery
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1) reduce eye contact 2) hinders audience adaptation 3) presenter may also use fewer gestures 4) vocal variety may be lacking 5) pacing of presentation may be too rapid or too slow
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Impromptu mode of delivery
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giving a presentation without advance preparation. uses minimal planning and preparation and usually no practice.
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Key to impromptu mode of delivery
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take a moment to compose your thoughts and to identify important points instead of figuring out what you are going to say as you speak.
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advantages of impromptu mode of delivery
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1) reveals your skill in unplanned circumstances 2) provides you with opportunities to think on your feet and be spontaneous.
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disadvantages of impromptu mode of delivery
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1) spontaneity discourages audience analysis, planned research, and detailed preparation, has uncertain outcome
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How can you use your voice effectively?
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1) adjust your rate to content, audience, and situation 2) Use pause for effect 3) use duration for attention 4) use rhythm to establish tempo 5) use pitch for expression 6) use volume for emphasis 7) enunciation for clarity 8) use fluency for fluidity
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vocalized pause
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a way of delaying with sound (Ex: ahhhs, nows, you knows, whatevers, umms)
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rhythm
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tempo of a speech
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alliteration
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repetition f the initial sounds of words
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pitch
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highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice, its upward or downward inflection, the melady produced by the voice
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projection
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adjusting your volume appropriately for the subject, the audience, and the situation
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Enunciation
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pronunciation and articulation of words
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Pronunciation
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the production of the sounds of a word
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Articulation
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physiological process of creating the sounds
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malapropism
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mistaking one word for another
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addition
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occurs when an extra sound is added
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Deletion
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occurs when a sound is dropped or left out of a word
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Substitution
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occurs when one sound is replaced with another
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Transposition
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occurs when two sounds are reversed
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fluency
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the smoothness of delivery, the flow of the words, and the absence of vocalized pauses
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How can you use your body to communicate effectively
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1) use eye contact to hold audience attention 2) use facial expressions to communicate 3) Use gestures to reinforce message 4) use bodily movement for purpose 5) wear appropriate attire
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suggestions for choosing appropriate attire for the classroom setting
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1) wear clothing that is typical for your audience 2) avoid wearing clothing or jewelry that is likely to distract your audience from your message 3) wear clothing and accessories that contribute to your credibility, not ones that lower your standng in the eyes of the audience: avoid provocative or revealing clothing
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how to improve your delivery
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1) start with a detailed outline 2) distill the working outline into a speaking outline that includes only reminders of what you intend to include 3) practice your speech alone 4) practice your speech in front of a friend 5) practice with minimal notes in empty classroom or similar place 6) use past critiques 7) watch a videotape of your own performance for feedback if possible
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symbolic
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they represent the concrete and objective reality of objects and things as well as abstract ideas
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general characteristics of language
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1) Language is symbolic 2) Language is powerful 3) words organize and classify 4) words shape thought 5) language grows and changes
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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theory that suggest that our language determines to some extent how we think about and view the world.
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abstraction
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simplification standing for a person or thing
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semanticists
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people who study words and meaning
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levels of abstraction
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the degree to which words become separated from concrete or sensed reality
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abstract words
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general, broad, and distant from what you can perceive through your senses
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concrete words
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specific, narrow, particular, and based on what you can sense
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denotative meaning
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the direct, explicit meaning or reference of a word
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connotative meaning
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the idea suggested by a word other than its explicit meaning
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descriptive language
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attempts to observe objectively and without judgement
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evaluative language
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full of judgments about the goodness or badness of a person or situation
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comparison
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shows how much one thing is like another
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contrast
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shows how unlike one thing is from another
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Literal language
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uses words to reveal facts usually found in news reprts in newspapers and magazines or text-based news sources on the internet
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figurative language
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compares one concept to another analogous but different concept usually found in lyrics of songs, in poetry, and in feature articles in magazines
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how to use language respectfully
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1) use inclusive language 2) use approved names 3) avoid stereotypes and differences
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inclusive language
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language that does not leave out groups of people
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stereotype
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the misjudging of an individual by assuming that he or she has the characteristics of some group- that every single individual is just exactly like the others
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differences
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emphasizing rrelevant qualifiers (ex: female judge, hispanic professor, woman doctor) listener might assume that you do not believe that people from such groups ought to be in such positions
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what words should you use?
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1) use words that simplify 2) use substitutions and definitions 3) use synonyms and antonyms 4) reveal the origin of the word 5) use words that evoke images 6) use correct grammar 7) use repetition 8) alluring alliteration
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synonyms
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words that mean more or less the same thing
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antonyms
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words that are opposite in meaning
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etymology
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origin of a word
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alliteraton
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means the repetition of an initial consonant
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3 examples of using words unethically
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1) exaggeration 2) oversimplification 3) perspective taking
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hyperbole
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kind of overstatement or use of a word or words that exaggerates the actual situation
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oversimplification
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describing a complex issue as a simple one
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perspective
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your point of view or perception
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Tips for using language in presentations
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choose language that: 1) is at a level that is appropriate for the specific audience 2) the audience will understand 3) is consistent with yourself, the topic, and the situation 4) meets high ethical standards
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how can you benefit from using sensory aids
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1) people learn better through use of multiple senses 2) people remember information better with the use of sensory aids 3) sensory aids hold attention and motivate people to listen 4) sensory aids result in clearer messages
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sensory aids
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resources other than the speaker that stimulate listeners and help them comprehend and remember the presenter’s message ** most common ones stimulate sight
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visual aids
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any observable resources used to enhance, explain, or supplement the presenter’s message
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dual coding
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the use of words accompanied by other sensory stimuli
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types of visual and sensory aids
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1) slide-deck programs 2) holistic design programs 3) yourself 4) models 5) objects 6) audio and video 7) slide transparencies 8) handouts
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multimedia materials
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digital or electronic sensory resources that combine text, graphics, video and sound into one package
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slide-deck programs
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like cards in a deck, you can arrange slides in a particular order and then display those slides to the audience (ex: powerpoint)
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text slide
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relies primarily on words and phrases to show audience members information
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tables
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use text and/or numbers to efficiently summarize, compare, and contrast information
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charts
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useful for visually displaying quantitative or statistical information
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types of charts
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1) bar and column charts- illustrate differences betweeen categories of information 2) Pie charts- used to show percentages of a whole 3) Line charts- show trends in quanttative data (ex: scatterplot- plots related values on an X-Y axis and then creates a line showing how those values are related)
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flowchart
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diagrams that represent a hierachical structure or process
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tips for using slide-deck programs
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1) don’t overload number of slides 2) don’t overload any one slide 3) use large font 4) select colors with contrast 5) avoid unnecessary images/effects 6) have a back up plan 7) don’t read slides 8) use blank slides to hide presentation 9) practice
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types of slide-deck programs
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1) text slides 2) tables 3) charts 4) pictures 5) multimedia (video)
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tips for text slides
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1) place information into “bullet points” 2) spend enough time explaining each point 3) avoid placing extraneous information on slide
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disadvantages of slide-deck programs
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1) a sense of the whole is lost and information can easily become decontextualized 2) give very little control over the aesthetics of your presentation
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holistic design programs
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allow you to wor from a broader picture down to specific ideas and back again (ex: Prezi)
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tips for holistic design programs
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1) think about design 2) emphasize the visual 3) think about the big picture
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tips on using viual and sensory aids
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1) be audience-centered when selecting sensory aids 2) be ethical 3) keep the content of your sensory aid clear and relevant 4) explain you visual aids 5) understand that using sensory aids takes time 6) avoid being too simple or too complex 7) strive for professionalism 8) hide your visual aid when not in use
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principles of informative presentations
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1) relate the presenter to the topic 2) relate the topic to the audience
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when are audiences more likely to listen to a presentation
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1) if they believe the speaker is well informed and connected to the topic 2) if the information is relevant to them
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informative presentation
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one that increases an audience’s knowledge about a subject or that helps the audience learn more about an issue or idea
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4 purposes of informative presentations
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1) to create information hunger 2) to help the audience understand the information 3) to help the audience remember the information 4) to help the audience apply the information
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strategies for creating information hunger
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1) arouse audience curiosity 2) pose a puzzling question 3) elplain a confusing issue
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how can you encourage the audience to understand your topic?
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Remember that: 1) audiences probably understand main ideas and generalizations better than specific facts and details 2) audiences are more likel to understand simple words and concrete ideas than complex words and abstract ideas 3) early remarks about how the presentation will meet the audience’s needs can create anticipation and increase the chances that the audience will listen and understand 4) audience members’ overt participation increases their understanding
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pitfalls to audience participation
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1) their reaction/participation might not be what you have in mind 2) they might take more time to respond than you had intended 3) the audience could become unruly when they are given an opportunity to talk or move around
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how can you get listeners to retain important information?
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1) reveal specifically what you want them to learn 2) indicate clearly which ideas are main ideas and which are subordinate ideas 3) repeat n idea 2-3 times 4) pausing /using a physical gesture to indicate the importance of the information
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why should the informative presenter encourage the audience to use the information as quickly as possible
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1) information applied immediatel is remembered longer 2) an action tried once udner supervision is more likely to be tried again later
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behavioral response
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an overt indication of undrstanding
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5 principles of learning
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1) Building on the known 2) using humor and wit 3) using sensory aids 4) organizing information 5) rewarding your listeners
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humor
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ability to perceive and express that which is amusing or comical
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wit
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ability to perceive ad express homorously the relationship or similarty between seemingly incongruous or diparate things
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primary
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placing the information or main point early in the presentation * works best in presentations on controversial issues, on topics the audience cares little about and on topics highly familiar to the audience
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recency
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placing the information or main point late in your presentation *works est when audience memers care about the issue, when he issue is moderately unfamiliar, and when the topic is not terrible interesting
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skills that help make a presentation effective
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1) defining in an iformative presentation 2) describing in an informative presentation 3) explaining in an iformative presentation
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Defining
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revealing the presenter’s intended meaning of term, expecially if the tem is technical scientific, controversial, or not commonly used
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Describing
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envokes the meaning of a person, a place, an object, or an experience by telling about its size, weight, color, texture, smelll, or your feelings about it.
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explaining
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reveals how something works, why something occurred, or how something should be evaluated
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demonstrating
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showing the audience an object, a person, or a place; showing the audience how something works; showing the audience how to do something; or showing the audience why something occurs
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guidelines for positive ethical choices in an informative presentation
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1) Be sure of the quality of your information 2) exercise caution when using the words of others 3) be careful not to mislead you audience 4) be sure the audience needs the information 5) be sure that the information you are providing is in the best nterest of the audience members

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