SPEECH TEST#2

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brainstorming
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a problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas. Among other techniques, you can (blank) by making lists, using word association, and topic mapping.
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word association
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brainstorming technique in which one writes down ideas as they come to mind, beginning with a single word
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topic mapping
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a brainstorming technique in which words are laid out in diagram form to show categorical relationships among them; useful for selecting and narrowing a speech topic
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general purpose
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the general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate or commemorate a special occasion.
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specific purpose
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an infinitive phrase-what you want the audience to know at the end of the speech
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thesis statement
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the theme or central idea of a speech that connects all the parts of the speech in a single, declarative sentence. The main points, supporting material, and conclusion all relate to the thesis. What you will be discussing in your speech
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supporting material
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examples, narratives, testimony, facts, and statistics that support the speech thesis and form the speech
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example
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an illustration whose purpose is to aid understanding by making ideas, items, or events more concrete and by clarifying and amplifying meaning
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brief example
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a single illustration of an idea, item, or event being described
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extended example
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multifaceted illustration of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively
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hypothetical example
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an illustration of something that could happen in the future if certain events were to occur
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story, or narrative
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a tale based on personal experiences or imaginary incidents
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anecdote
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a brief story of an interesting, humorous, or real-life incident that links back to the speaker’s theme
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testimony
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firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay (nonexpert) and expert
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expert testimony
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any findings, eyewitness accounts, or opinions by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic
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lay testimony
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firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, or opinions from nonexperts facts documented occurrences, including actual events, dates, times, places, and people involved
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statistics
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quantified evidence; data that measure the size or magnitude of something, demonstrate trends, or show relationships with the purpose of summarizing information, demonstrating proof, and making points memorable
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cherry-picking
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selectively presenting only those facts and statistics that buttress one’s point of view while ignoring competing data
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primary research
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original or firsthand research, such as interviews and surveys
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secondary research
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published facts and statistics, texts, documents, and any other information not originally collected and generated by the researcher
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virtual library
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a collection of library holdings available online
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propaganda
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information represented in such a way as to provoke a desired response
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misinformation
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information that is false
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disinformation
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the deliberate falsification of information
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individual search engine
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a search engine that compiles its own database of Web pages, such as Google or AltaVista
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meta-search engine
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a search engine that scans a variety of individual search engines at the same time
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specialized search engine
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a search engine that searches for information only on specific topics
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source reliability
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the level of trust in a source’s credentials and track record for providing accurate information
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source qualifier
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a brief description of the source’s qualifications to address a topic
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facts
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documented occurrences including actual events, dates, times, people, and places
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statistics
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quantified evidence
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What four pieces of information about the source should be passed on to the audience?
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The author or origin of the source The type of source The title or a description of the source The date of the source (recency)
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What is the function of orally crediting speech sources?
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Crediting speech sources demonstrates that you have a range of research, helps you avoid plagiarism, and supports your credibility as an ethical speaker. It also enhances your ability to win support for your point of view, and enables your listeners to locate your sources if they decide to do further research on the topic.
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4 objectives of a good introduction
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1. Gain attention 2. Reveal topic/Reinforce thesis 3. Establish credibility and goodwill 4. Preview main points
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Attention Getting devices
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use a quotation, tell a story, ask rhetorical questions, arouse curiosity, startle your audience, relate unusual information, use humor, refer to the audience, refer to the occasion
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Functions of a conclusion
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1. Signal the end of the speech 2. Summarize main points 3. Reiterate topic and purpose and 4. (in persuasion-Challenge the audience to respond) and 5. A memorable closing.

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