Speech Key Terms

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Closure
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The quality of a conclusion that makes a speech “sound finished”
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Delivery outline
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A condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
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Mapping
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Use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
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Preparation outline
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A detailed outline that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material and that may also include a speech’s specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, signposts, and conclusion
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Standard outline form
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Numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among the various parts of a speech
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Alliteration
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The repetition of a consonant sound (usually the first consonant) several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence
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Antithesis
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Opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences whose parts have parallel structures but contrasting meanings
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Cliché
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An overused expression
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Connotation
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The meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experience
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Crisis rhetoric
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Language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times
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Denotation
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The literal meaning of a word
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Ethnic vernacular
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A variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
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Figure of speech
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Language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meanings of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
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Inversion
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Reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
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Jargon
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The specialized language of a profession or hobby
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Metaphor
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An implied comparison of two things or concepts that is similar in some vital way
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Omission
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Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
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Parallelism
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Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences
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Personification
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The attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas
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Regionalisms
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A word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country
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Repetition
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Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
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Simile
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A comparison between two things that uses the word like or as
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Standard U.S. English
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The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States
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Suspension
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Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence
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Thesaurus
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A book containing a store of words and their synonyms
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Articulation
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The production of clear and distinct speech sounds
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Boom microphone
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A microphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in movies and TV
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Dialect
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A consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region
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Emotional contagion theory
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A theory suggesting that people “catch” the emotions of others
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Extemporaneous speaking
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Speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having the exact wording of the speech in front of you or in memory
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Immediacy
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The degree of physical or psychological closeness between people
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Immediacy behaviors
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Nonverbal expressions of closeness to and liking for an audience, made through such means as physical approach or eye contact
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Impromptu speaking
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Delivering a speech without advance preparation
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Inflection
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The variation of the pitch of the voice
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Lavaliere microphone
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A microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around the neck
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Manuscript speaking
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Reading a speech from a written text
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Memorized speaking
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Delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
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Nonverbal communication
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Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
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Nonverbal-expectancy theory
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A communication theory suggesting that if listeners’ expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message
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Pitch
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The highness or lowness of voice sounds
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Pronunciation
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The proper use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
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Stationary microphone
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A microphone that is found attached to a podium, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor
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Volume
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The softness or loudness of a speaker’s voice
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Bar graph
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A graph in which bars of various lengths represent information
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Chart
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A display that summarizes and presents a great deal of information in a small amount of space
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Clip art
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Images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid
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Font
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A particular style of typeface
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Graph
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A pictorial representation of statistical data
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Line graph
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A graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables
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Model
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A small object that represents a larger object
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Picture graph
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A graph that uses images or pictures to symbolize data
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Pie graph
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A circular graph divided into wedges that show the distribution of data
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Presentation aid
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Any tangible object, image, or sound that helps to communicate an idea to an audience
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Visual rhetoric
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The use of images as an integrated element in the total communication effort a speaker makes to achieve the speaking goal
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Andragogy
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The art and science of teaching adults
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Pedagogy
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The art and science of teaching children
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Speech to inform
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A speech that shares information with others about ideas, concepts, principles, or processes to enhance their knowledge or understanding
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Word picture
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A vivid description that appeals to the senses
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Attitude
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A predisposition to respond favorably (like) or unfavorably (dislike) to something
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Belief
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An individual’s perception of what is true or false
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Benefit
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A good result that creates a positive emotional response in the listener
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Cognitive dissonance
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The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
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Direct persuasion route
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Persuasion that occurs when audience members critically examine evidence and arguments
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Elaborate
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From the standpoint of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion, to think about information, ideas, and issues related to the content of a message
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Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion
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The theory that listeners can be persuaded directly, by logic, reasoning, and evidence, or indirectly, by their overall impression of the message
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Ethos
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The term that Aristotle used to refer to a speaker’s credibility
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Feature
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A characteristic of something you are describing
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Indirect persuasion route
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Persuasion that occurs as a result of factors peripheral to a speaker’s logic and argument, such as the speaker’s charisma or emotional appeals
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Logos
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Literally, “the word”; the term that Aristotle used to refer to logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a rational conclusion
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Motivation
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An internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
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Pathos
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The term that Aristotle used to refer to appeals to emotion
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Persuasion
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The process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
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Proposition
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A statement with which a speaker wants an audience to agree
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Proposition of fact
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A proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
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Proposition of policy
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A proposition that advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior
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Proposition of value
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A proposition that calls for a listener to judge the worth or importance of something
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Self-actualization
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The need to achieve one’s highest potential
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Social judgment theory
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The theory that listeners; responses to persuasive messages fall in the category responses to persuasive messages fall in the category of latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of no commitment
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Value
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An enduring concept of right and wrong, good and bad
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Ad hominem
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An attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea rather than on the idea itself
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Appeal to misplaced authority
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Use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise
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Bandwagon fallacy
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Reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct
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Causal fallacy
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A faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
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Causal reasoning
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Reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others
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Charisma
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A form of dynamism characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
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Competence
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An aspect of a speaker’s credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceive as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable
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Conclusion
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The logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems form the major premise and the minor premise
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Deductive reasoning
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Reasoning that moves from a general statement or principle to a specific, certain conclusion
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Demagogue
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A speaker who attempts to gain control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners’ prejudices
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Derived credibility
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The perception of a speaker’s credibility that an audience forms during a speech
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Dynamism
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An aspect of a speaker’s credibility that reflects whether speaker is perceived as energetic
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Either/ or fallacy
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The oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only tow outcomes or possibilities
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Emotional response theory
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Human emotional responses can be classified as eliciting feelings of pleasure, arousal, or dominance
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Example
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An illustration used to dramatize or clarify a fact
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Fact
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Information that has been proven to be true through direct observation
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Fallacy
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False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
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Generalization
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An all-encompassing statement
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Hasty generalization
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A conclusion reached without adequate evidence
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Inductive reasoning
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Reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
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Inference
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A conclusion based on partial information or an evaluation that has not been directly observed
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Initial credibility
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The impression of a speaker’s credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech
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Major premise
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A general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
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Minor premise
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A specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism
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Myth
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A belief based on the shared values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people
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Non sequitur
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Latin for “it does not follow”; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
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Red herring
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Irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
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Reluctant testimony
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A statement by someone who has reversed his or her position a given issue
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Syllogism
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A three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
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Terminal credibility
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The final impression listeners have of a speaker’s credibility, after a speech concludes
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Trustworthiness
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An aspect of a speaker’s credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest

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