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Speech Class

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communication accommodation theory
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adjusting your speech to meet the needs and understanding of different people
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5 steps in listening process
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1. receiving 2.understanding 3.remembering 4.evaluating 5.responding
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4 types of listening
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1.appreciative (ex: listening to music) 2. empathetic (ex: listening to a friend) 3.comprehensive (ex: listening to a class lecture) 4.critical (ex: Listening to a political candidate speech)
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4 causes of poor listening
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1.not concentrating 2.listening too hard 3.jumping to conclusions 4.focusing on physical appearance
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Ways to become a better listener
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1. be an active listener 2.be resistant to distractions 3.try focusing on message and not person 4.try not to be bias 5.listen for main points 6.develop good note taking skills
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2 types of general purpose
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1.to inform 2.to persuade
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Specific purpose checklist
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1.write purpose statement as a full infinitive 2.express purpose as a statement not a question 3.avoid figurative language 4. limit purpose to one idea 5.make purpose statement is not too general or vague
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Specific purpose checklist pt.2
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1. does it meet assignment requirements 2.can i accomplish it in the time allotted 3.is it relevant to my audience 4.is it too trivial for my audience 5.is it too technical for my audience
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Central idea checklist
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1. write as a complete sentence 2.phrase as a statement not a question 3.include main points 4.can it be done truly and efficiently in the time allotted for the speech 5.is it relevant or appropriate for the audience
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Residual message
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what you want your audience to learn for your speech
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Audience centeredness
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As you develop your speech, just make sure your audience is the center of the speech
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Identification
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You want the audience to identify with you as well as your speech
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Egocentrism
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Caring about yourself; your speech must make the audience relate themselves to your speech
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demographic audience analysis
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1.age (pick topic that relates to audience’s age) 2.gender (topic should be gender neutral) 3.sexual orientation 4.racial,ethnic, and cultural background 5. religion 6.group membership
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Situational audience analysis
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1.size 2.physical setting 3.disposition towards topic (attitude, knowledge, interest) 4.disposition toward speaker 5.disposition toward occasion
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strategic organization
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structuring the speech a particular way to achieve a specific result with a specific audience
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Tips for main points
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1.keep main points separate 2.use same wording pattern for main points 3.balance amount of time devoted for main points
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Transition
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moving for one topic to another doing so with an indication usually by signpost
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Signposts
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“first”, “Lastly”, “next”… It reminds the audience where you are in your speech
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5 types of main point orders
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1.chronological (informative speeches, time ordered) 2.spatial (informative speeches) 3.causal (informative and persuasive speeches) 4.Problem solution (persuasive speeches) 5.topical (cover many/ any topic)
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4 ways to gain audience attention
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1.joke 2.anecdote 3.asking audience questions 4.quote/statistic
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4 elements of the intro
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1.gain audience’s attention 2.connect topic to audience 3.establish credibility 4.reveal topic and preview main points
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4 elements of the conclusion
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1.signal end of speech 2.review main points 3. remotivate audience 4.end memorably/provide closure
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Ways to remotivate audience
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-Informative Speeches tell audience where they can get more info and where they can experience topic for themsleves -Persuasive speeches push audience to do something physically give people the proper info to do something
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Rhetorical question
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Question audience answers internally rather than out loud
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Ways to establish credibility
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1. read up on topic 2. interview others who are familiar with the topic 3.firsthand experience with the topic 4.take a class on the topic at hand
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ways of ending memorably
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1. quote 2.make a dramatic statement
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Prep outline
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detailed full sentence outline developed during the process of preparing a speech
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Guidelines for prep outline
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1.specific purpose 2.central idea 3. label intro, body, and conclusion 4.state main points and sub points in full sentences 5.label transitions in parentheses or brackets 6.include reference page when applicable
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delivery cues
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directions on how to say something or when to say it
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Speaking outline
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brief outline that is supposed to jog your memory about what you are gonna say
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Guidelines for speaking outline
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1. should be on note cards 2.should be brief as possible using key words 3.should be legible 4.should be numbered 5.should not be full-sentenced
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Informative speech
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convey knowledge and understanding
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Types of informative speeches
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1.objects 2.processes 3.events 4.concepts
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Guidelines for informative speeches
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1.dont overestimate the audience 2.relate subject to audience 3.dont be too technical 4.avoid abstractions (make ideas concrete) 5.personalize your ideas