speech chapter 17

question

____________ is the audience’s perception of how qualified a speaker is to speak on a given topic.
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Credibility
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A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience regards the speaker’s
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competence and character
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____________ is the name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
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Ethos
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Strong evidence can
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enhance a speaker’s credibility. increase the persuasiveness of a speech. inoculate listeners against counter-persuasion.
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No matter what kind of evidence you employ, it will be more persuasive if you state it in specific rather than general terms.
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True
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Evidence is more likely to be persuasive if it is familiar to the audience.
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False
question

\”Pathos\” is the word Aristotle used to refer to a speaker’s logical appeal.
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False
question

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement? Because the crime-reduction policy I propose has worked successfully in New York, Houston, and New Orleans, we can be confident that it will work here as well.
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analogical reasoning
question

What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement? I watched a Taiwanese film in class last week, and it was extremely violent. When I mentioned this to my friend, she said that she, too, had seen a violent Taiwanese film. Apparently, all Taiwanese films are violent.
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hasty generalization
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Reasoning from principle involves moving from a specific principle to a general conclusion.
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False
question

What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement? I usually eat spaghetti for dinner the day before an exam, but I ran out of spaghetti the night before the calculus final. That’s why I got a C.
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false cause
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The fallacy of false cause is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc.
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True
question

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement? Because the crime-reduction policy I propose has worked successfully in New York, Houston, and New Orleans, we can be confident that it will work here as well.
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analogical reasoning
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The most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning is whether
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the two cases being compared are essentially alike
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The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy? Either we build a new high school or children in this community will never get into college.
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either-or
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The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy? How can we take my opponent’s proposed education bill seriously? After all, he flunked out of high school.
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ad hominem
question

The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy? As we have seen, the trend is for companies to reduce long-term research and development costs in order to increase short-term profits. Since so many companies are doing this, it must make good business sense.
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bandwagon
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The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy? How can we be so concerned about ethics in political campaigns when there are serious problems in the long-term stability of Social Security?
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red herring
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The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy? Once we accept money from soft-drink companies for exclusive rights to sell their products in our high schools, it won’t be long until businesses are deciding what courses should be taught and what teachers should be hired.
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slippery slope
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Emotional appeal is often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action.
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True
question

In persuasive speaking, it is usually appropriate to substitute emotional appeals for evidence and reasoning.
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False

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