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Speech anatomy

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3 physiological components of speech production
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BALSA- breathing apparatus – lungs, respiratory musculature -airflow Larynx- phonation Surpralaryngeal articulators- modify size/shape oral cavity- sound qualities
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Dual functionality of speech anatomy
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Primary functions are vegetative
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Production of speech involves what 3 processes
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Complex interplay of respiration, phonation, articulation
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Sagittal plane
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Side view
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Coronal plane
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Front view
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Transverse plane
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Horizontal slice
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Main type of muscle involved in speech production
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Skeletal- voluntary control of skeletal frame
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Process of inhalation/inspiration
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Increasing space- thoracic cavity expansion Rib cage rises largely due to external intercostals Diaphragm lowers due to contraction of rim muscles Pressure in lungs decreases, air rushes in. In quiet breathing, diaphragm does most of the work.
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Process of exhalation/expiration
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Decreasing space- thoracic cavity contracts Active and passive forces involved Ribcage lowers, partly due to gravity, partly elastic recoil Muscles of abdominal wall contract, push diaphragm up Pressure in lungs increases, air forced out
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Diaphragm
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3-5mm thick sheet of muscle (rim) and tendon (middle). Dome shaped, connected to lower border of ribcage.
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External intercostal muscles
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Set of 2×11 muscles at a downwards and forwards angle in betw ribs (hands in pockets). Function as single sheet of muscle, pulling lower ribs towards upper during inspiration
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Function of muscles other than ext intercostals
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Assist in raising ribcage, raising chest and lowering ribcage
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Differences between breahing for speech and breathing for oxygen
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Speech is secondary function where chest functions as pressure pump to create subglottal pressure In speech inhalation much shorter than exhalation: 10% vs 90% More air exhaled and inhaled in speech Speech requires ability to vary air pressure and airflow Muscular activity more complex- ext intercostals work against elastic recoil, diaphragm less important role
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3 measure of lung volume important in speech
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TVR- tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume
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Residual volume
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25% total capacity, what remains after as much as poss is exhaled
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Vital capacity
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(Think: respiration is vital function) maximum vol which can be exchanged during respiration ie total capacity – residual vol
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Tidal volume
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Quantity of air exchanged in any particular breath. Varies (like tides) according to O2 requirements
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Why babies can eat and drink at same time
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Larynx sits much higher up so epiglottis makes contact with velum when lowered.
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Hiccup
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Involuntary contraction of diaphragm folllwed v quickly by closure of vocal folds
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Structure of larynx
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Surrounded on 3 sides by pharynx (posterior and lateral) Anterior wall protected by thyroid and cricoid cartilages Can be closed off from above by epiglottis Serves as a complex valve Can shift up and down as is suspended from hyoid bone and connected to sternum below Contains TWO pairs of folds- (muscular) VF and (glandular) ventricular folds Laryngeal skeleton consists of NINE cartilages- 3 single: epiglottic, thyroid, cricoid. 3 paired, including arytenoid
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Phonation
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Complex interplay of aerodynamic and muscle forces, initiated by laryngeal muscles bringing arytenoids together- VFs in’phonation neutral position’
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Arytenoids
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Resemble 3-sided pyramids with apex and base Sit on top of cricoid, attached to rear of VF (other end atached to thyroid cart.) Move laterally as well as rocking movements depending on muscles used
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Larynx muscles
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All are paired. Extrinsic have origin in laryngeal cartilage, insertions elsewhere (usually hyoid bone) Intrinsic have origins and insertions within laryngeal skeleton
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Vocal fold structure
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Body formed by thyroarytenoid muscle Overlaid by 3 gelatinous layers containing collagen and elastin which behave like a liquid- ripple effect when vibrating and shock absorption during adduction (closure). Surface is covered by epithelium which acts like a capsule to maintain shape
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Opening glottis
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Abduction of vocal folds caused by contraction of posterior cricoarytenoids
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Closing glottis
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Adduction of VFs is more complex, entails one or both of: Lateral cricoarytenoid contraction to bring together VFs Interarytenoid contraction to close whisper triangle
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Sustaining VF vibration
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Requires a balance betw muscular tension of folds and sub glottal pressure. Too much pressure- VFs close. Too much tension- will not part Myoelastic aerodynamic theory of phonation
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Glottal cycle
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One single vibration of VFs
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Aerodynamic theory of phonation
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Bernoulli effect aids myoelastic forces to close VF- airflow is fastest at narrowest point, causing pressure to drop, vocal folds to close
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Airstream manipulation in larynx affects
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VPLP- Voicing, pitch, loudness, phonatory quality
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Pitch(f0)
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Affected by MTL- mass, tension, length of VF. These vary according to GAAVIC- gender and age- bb 5mm, f 13-17mm, m 17-24mm active variation- tightening VF= increased f0 involuntary changes to VF properties- inflammation= decreased f0
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Loudness
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The faster the laryngeal cut off of airflow the higher the volume percieved.
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Name the speech organs (active articulators)
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Lips, tongue, velum (lower jaw assists in tongue positioning)
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3 cavities
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Oral, nasal, pharynx
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Oral cavity
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Primary function biological Contains articulators and is shaped by them Constriction of airflow=consonant Unhindered air flow=vowel
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Nasal cavity
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2 cavities, divided by septum: cartilage at front, bone at back Moistens and warms inhaled air
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Pharynx
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Primary function- passageway for food/drink. Musculature crucial for swallowing. 3 main muscles also contribute to speech: Constrictor pharyngis superior -helps shut velophayngeal port Constrictor pharyngis medial- constricts pharynx for back vowels etc Constrictor pharyngis inferior- suports medial in sound production and affects laryngeal muscle tension.
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Lips
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In cleft lip, philtrum is disconnected from rest of lip Complex of muscles, main is orbicularis oris. Others insert into this onefrom top, bottom, side. Orbicularis oris elongates vocal tract when contracted- lip protrusion. Rounding achieved with help of depressor labii inferior. Lip spreading achieved with contraction of buccinator and risorius. Lower lip retrusion eg for [f] requires contraction of lower lip muscles and retrusion of jaw.
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Tongue
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Muscular hydrostat: body of fluid encased in flexible membrane. Mostly muscle and water, also contains fat,blood vessels, nerves. Fluid is non-compressible- volume constant. If squashed in one region there’s a corresponding bulge elsewhere. 4 extrinsic muscles, 4 intrinsic
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Intrinsic tongue muscles
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Vertical- in sides of tongue, flatten it Transverse- extend from centre to sides, narrow and elongate it Superior and inferior longitudinal- both shorten tongue. Superior curls tio and sides, inferior pulls tip down
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Extrinsic tongue muscles
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PGSH (pretty great sexy helpers) Palatoglossus- mainly lowers velum. Can also elevate sides of rear dorsal region of tongue if velum fixed. Genioglossus – genio=chin. Substantial portion of tongue. Anterior fibres lower frontnof tongue,, posterior pull root towards jaw causing upward bulge. Movement by deformation. Styloglossus- attached to styloid process in skull, pulls tongue back and up Hyoglossus- attached to hyoid bone. Thin sheet of muscle inserts into sides of tongue, pulls back of tongue down.
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Central groove in tongue
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Central fibres of transversus and verticallis contract, supported by styloglossus and palatoglossus
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Velum
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Flexible muscular flap hanging from hard palate If muscles relaxed, velum lowered- default position When velum raised,, velopharyngeal port is closed.
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Closure of velopharyngeal port
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WTL- wall, tensor, levator Lifting action of levator veli palatini muscles Lateral stretching of tensor palatini muscles Forward motion of pharyngeal wall
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Jaw/mandible
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Interacts with tongue and lips- raising and lowering, protrusion, retrusion Opening jaw requires less muscular effort than closing Mandibular depressors fairly week 3 out of 4 insert into hyoid bone
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Passive articulators
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Teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate
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Hard palate
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5 sections fused together Premaxilla- front section.?If does not fuse with rest- cleft lip Left and right palatine processes of maxilla- if they do not fuse together- cleft palate left and right palatine bones- at the back where velum attaches
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3 methods of sound production
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Exploding airstream with bursts of pressure constricting airstream to generate turbulence resonating airstream to shape different sound qualities
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Articulatory gesture
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Movement of a single speech organs in the production of a speech sound. labial, lingual etc
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Articulation
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Physiologically- joining of structures loosely to allow movement. in speech science- movement forming speech sounds
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If velum didn’t work eg due to damage to vagus nerve
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No control over velopharyngeal port. hypernasality problems with all non-nasal sounds especially fricatives and plosives (require complete closure of velum) speech may sound muffled potential problems with swallowing (velum muscles house receptors which aid in initiating swallow reflex) food and drink entering nasal cavity
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Effect of lying down on respiration
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In supine position gravity does not support inspiration or expiration- it is more effortful. Lying down for long periods may cause pneumonia any condition which compromises posture compromises breathing and thus speech
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Epiglottis
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During breathing points upwards and air flows freely During swallowing, elevation of hyoid bone draws whole larynx up and epiglottis to more horizontal position , directing food to oesophagus also has nerve endings on upper surface involved in the gag reflex, and on lower in the cough reflex
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special sounds
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Type of speech sounds which can be produced determined partly by constraints of supra laryngeal system Quantal vowels- /i/ /o/ /u/ humans are particularly attuned to these form basics of vowel inventory of almost all languages ie they are almost universal. they are resistant to masking by background noise
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Ontogenetic development
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Anatomic restructuring takes place from birth until after puberty: disengagement of velic- epiglottic contact Descent of larynx, hyoid and epiglottis Descent of posterior part of tongue Most vocal tract structures have an accelerated growth rate between birth and 18 months
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Structures in the horizontal plane
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Grow less in size overall follow neural growth curve- very rapid growth until early childhood then very slow until maturity (for example hard palate)
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Structures in vertical plane
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Grow more in size overall Rapid growth during period following birth until infancy, then regular but slow growth until mid childhood, rapid growth in puberty, then slow steady growth to maturity (for example soft palate and laryngeal descent)
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Structures in both planes
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Mixed growth pattern vocal tract- pharyngeal part grows much more than oral to make room for descending larynx etc In boys pharyngeal growth spurt in puberty is much greater- mutation/ voice breaks
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Things to consider when collecting articulatory data
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Recording speed (frame rate etc) ecological validity participants tolerance of apparatus required mundane issues like storage
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Articulatory compensation
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The ability to compensate for a change to one part of the vocal tract by modifying movements of other parts in such a way as to produce a similar acoustic signal Sometimes referred to as motor equivalence Bite block speech- if holding something in the teeth and speaking at the same time Eliciting articulatory compensation experimentally helps to understand feedback loops (for example oral-sensory and auditory) it helps to investigate the speed with which compensation is achieved
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Compensatory techniques for pathological changes to the vocal tract
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Ventricular phonation Nasopharyngeal fricatives, clicks instead of plosives in cleft palate
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Speech is the most complex sequential motor task performed by humans
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So it is