SPCH COMM 1 MIDTERM

question

Ben says, “Hawaii is the best vacation spot in the world.” Ethan, who has read reliable data about the subject, says, “Statistics show that more people vacation in Paris than in Hawaii.” The difference between their statements is that Ben’s is ____________, whereas Ethan’s is ____________.
answer

opinion-based; fact-based
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Which of the following is true about how women and men use language?
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Both men and women talk frequently about work, movies, and television.
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Using the term firefighter rather than fireman is an example of ____________ language.
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gender-neutral
question

Melania asks a woman who is actually just overweight when the baby is due. What language rule did Melania break?
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Pragmatic rules
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A behavioral description describes behavior that is ____________.
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observable
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Research indicates that the notion that men and women communicate in dramatically different ways is ____________.
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exaggerated
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Fast or slow, small or large, smart or stupid, and short or long are examples of words of what type?
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Relative
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People who speak using a combination of “powerful” and “powerless” language are typically more ____________ communicators.
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effective
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____________ govern how words sound when pronounced.
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Phonological rules
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When entering a public restroom, which set of language rules makes it possible for us to know whether to enter through the “Men’s” or “Women’s” door?
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Semantic rules
question

You overhear two women at the table next to you talking about the frustrations of working with an explosive boss. Which of the following is most likely to be part of their conversation, based on research about female speech patterns?
answer

“How do you feel when the boss starts yelling like that?”
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____________ language contains words that sound as if they are describing something when they are really announcing the speaker’s attitude toward something.
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Emotive
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A conclusion based on an interpretation of evidence is called a(n) ____________.
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inference
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Using acronyms online such as ILYSM or OOMP demonstrates ____________.
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convergence
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____________ words have more than one correct dictionary definition.
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Equivocal
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Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning demonstrates visually that meanings are in ____________.
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minds
question

The CEO of a company tells her employees that “each department will be restructuring within the next six months.” A department head in the same company tells employees that the department will sustain layoffs within the next six months. How do the statements compare?
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The CEO intentionally uses a vague term for “layoffs,” while the department head is direct.
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____________ govern the arrangement or sequence of language.
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Syntactic rules
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Which of the following is an example of powerless speech?
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Hedges
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Which of the following statements would researchers classify as being the most powerfully expressed?
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“I have a question.”
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Communicators who want to set themselves apart from others adopt the strategy of ____________.
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divergence
question

Kiley tells Luke, “You don’t listen to me anymore.” What still needs to be answered to make the statement a behavioral description?
answer

In what circumstances does the behavior occur?
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Language use can reflect a speaker’s willingness to take responsibility for his or her statements. Which of the following categories of statements reflects the highest amount of speaker responsibility?
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“I” statements
question

Which one of the following word types gains its meaning by comparison?
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Relative
question

What style of speech is used in this statement? “I’ve felt that way myself. My heart really goes out to you.”
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Affective
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Linguistic relativism means that ____________.
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the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
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Jude tells Micah about a problem he’s been having at work. Considering the differences in the way men and women often communicate, how is Micah most likely to respond?
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By expressing sympathy or empathy
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When communicators adapt their speech to fit in with others they are adopting the strategy of ____________.
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convergence
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____________ describes a version of the same language that contains substantially different words and meanings.
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Dialect
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Dictionary definitions offer ____________ meanings, while implied interpretations that reflect the people, culture, emotions, and situations involved provide ____________ meanings.
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denotative, connotative
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When your good friend tells you that you have a tendency to interrupt, you thank him for his constructive criticism. When a new coworker accuses you of monopolizing the conversation, you think silently to yourself, “Haters gonna hate.” The tendency to judge people we like more charitably than people we don’t know well is known as ____________.
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linguistic intergroup bias
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The Inuit have dozens of words for what we typically call snow. This is an example of ____________.
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linguistic relativism
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____________ are pleasant terms substituted for more direct but potentially less pleasant terms.
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Euphemisms
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What factor influences language use much more than biology?
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Socialization
question

Melania asks a woman who is actually just overweight when the baby is due. What language rule did Melania break?
answer

Pragmatic rules
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Swear words are governed by ____________.
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pragmatic rules
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Communicators from cultures that value ____________ tend to use more ambiguous terms, hedges, and disclaimers.
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saving face
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Graduate, lead, and produce are all words whose meaning may vary as a result of inconsistent ____________ rules.
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phonological
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Terms such as sick and tight may be interpreted by members of your in-group as compliments, but other people are likely to see them as insults. This is because ____________ differ(s) from group to group.
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slang
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The leader of a political party says a rival political party is “irresponsible because they are destroying the livelihood of millions of Southwestern ranchers with their policies.” An economist not affiliated with any political party cites data saying that the same ranchers “have sustained a 5 percent increase in taxes when purchasing feed.” Which statement best describes how the two statements compare?
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The first statement more likely uses emotive language, and the second is more likely a fact.
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Individualistic cultures value __________.
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CorrectE. self-reliance
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This barrier to diversity comes in many forms, but all types of ____________ involve cultural domination.
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hegemony
question

Which of the following conclusions may be suggested by media depictions of older people?
answer

Older people lack enjoyment in their lives.
question

Leticia asks Lourdes for her help with a case she is working on. Lourdes does not have the time to help Leticia but does not want to offend her by saying no. Instead, she suggests that her coworker, Belinda, may be interested in learning more about the case Leticia is working on. Based on her response, Lourdes most likely comes from a _________.
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high context culture
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Men and women who do not feel that their biological sex adequately describes them would most likely identify as ____________.
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transgender
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Carl has just graduated from college. He’s come to Chicago from his home state of Georgia for an interview with a major corporation. He is up against three other equally qualified candidates. One is an African American man from New Jersey while the other is a Hispanic woman from Iowa. Carl is of European descent. All candidates interviewed fairly well. In the end, the candidate from Iowa was hired by the corporation. What reason may best explain why Carl did not get the job?
answer

Carl is from Georgia and has a Southern accent.
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A culture where men and women share equal responsibility for household chores would most likely be considered __________.
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cooperative
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Jerry is visiting China for the first time. Jerry only speaks English and feels uncomfortable about the idea of visiting rural areas where they mostly speak Mandarin. Nevertheless, Jerry decides to visit a small village outside of the city. When visiting the village, Jerry avoids interacting with anyone directly unless they speak English. Jerry goes back to the city feeling bored and unfulfilled by the time he spent in the village. What likely prevented Jerry from having a more positive experience?
answer

Jerry could not accept the ambiguity of the situation.
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Michael and Brooke are visiting France for the first time. While they enjoy visiting the museums and historical sites, they can’t help but criticize the people and their culture. They specifically wished that more people would speak English and were troubled by the strangeness of French cuisine. Michael and Brooke’s behavior best exemplifies __________.
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ethnocentrism
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When a person makes exaggerated generalizations about a group, he or she is engaging in __________.
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stereotyping
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Indirect, rather than direct, racism is most likely to offend which ethnic group?
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Asian Americans
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You are looking for signs as to whether a culture is low context. Which of the following would be an obvious indicator of that fact?
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Use of the word “no”
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A diverse group of children happily play together in the park. They all recognize that they speak different languages and come from different ethnic backgrounds. This interaction is an example of __________.
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intercultural communication
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Unfairly biased and intolerant attitudes toward others are known as ____________, while ____________ is the attitude that one’s own culture is superior to others.
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prejudice; ethnocentrism
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If one claims membership in a social category, such as LGBTQ, that is part of an encompassing group, he or she is part of a(n) __________.
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coculture
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For intercultural communication to take place, cultural differences must be ____________.
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salient
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Which of the following best exemplifies the contact hypothesis?
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John grew up traveling and spending time with people around the world. He now has positive attitudes and good relationships with people of many different cultures.
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Marcus shows great respect and devotion to his extended family. He feels that it is his duty to take care of them and make sure that they have security as they get older. It is likely that Marcus comes from a(n) __________.
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collectivistic culture
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When communicating with person who has a disability, you should __________.
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ask questions when you’re unsure of what to do
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Li works for a nonprofit agency that works to create awareness about veteran’s issues. Her supervisor wants her to design a brochure about veterans with amputations and who have diminished use of their limbs. Her supervisor has specifically asked that Li use appropriate language when referring to veterans in this category. Which of the following terms should Li utilize?
answer

Veterans with disabilities
question

What does research reveal about LGBTQ individuals?
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Most of the developed world has become more receptive to this community.
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Which cultures believe in minimizing the differences between social classes?
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Low power distance
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Juan comes from an uncertainty-avoiding culture. As a result, he may have difficulty __________.
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being away from home for long periods of time
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__________ relates to physical appearance, while __________ relates to cultural factors.
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Race; ethnicity
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Silence is most valued in __________.
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high context cultures
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Competent intercultural interaction will be difficult if the communicator is not __________.
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open-minded
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In general, religious teens who respect the viewpoints of multiple religions ____________ than teens who either believe that only one religion has merit or who are not religious.
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date more frequently
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If you are part of a high power distance culture, there is a good chance that you could also be a part of a(n) __________.
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collectivistic culture
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Betty is a 65-year-old retired mechanical engineer who now lives with her daughter. Before, Betty was relatively independent and did everything for herself. Now, her daughter insists on doing everything for Betty, including paying her bills and doing the grocery shopping. This week, Betty’s daughter is on vacation, and Betty’s bills are due. Instead of paying the bills herself, Betty asks her son to help her. Which of the following reasons best explains why Betty did not take care of the bills herself?
answer

Betty doesn’t perceive herself as capable of taking care of the bills.
question

Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between culture and cocultures?
answer

Cocultures are both part of and exist alongside the larger culture.
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Which of the following best reflects the relationship between salience and intercultural communication?
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Individuals must see themselves as different for intercultural communication to take place.
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Which of the following is an example of a coculture?
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Children of immigrants who are immersed in American culture while still identifying with customs of their parents’ homeland
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You see a person in a wheelchair crossing the street with a heavy bag of groceries. It looks like she might need some help. What would be the most appropriate action to take?
answer

Ask if she needs assistance, and then help her if she needs it.
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You have gone to Japan to meet with another manager to discuss potential directions for the company. The other manager is Japanese and is slightly higher than you on the company ladder. During this meeting, the other manager makes a suggestion that you do not agree with. How should you respond?
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“That’s an interesting idea. Let me think it over.”
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Which of the following is valued in a high-context culture?
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Social harmony
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According to researchers, the stress experienced by an individual while being introduced to a new culture indicates that the individual __________.
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has the potential to grow and adapt to that culture
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Culture can be best understood as __________.
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the language, values, beliefs, and traditions shared and learned by a group of people
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Mario recently came to the United States through a study abroad program and currently works in the financial aid office at his college. The other day his supervisor asked him for his opinion about the office filing system. Mario felt very uncomfortable with this question and responded by saying, “Whatever way you want it, that’s fine by me.” It is likely that Mario comes from a __________.
answer

high power distance culture
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If you were to say that all older people have trouble hearing, you’d be engaging in __________.
answer

stereotyping
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The complex interplay of multiple identities is called ____________.
answer

intersectionality
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Gloria is planning a trip to China. She is reading books about Chinese culture and watching Chinese films and took a course on Chinese history. Gloria is improving her intercultural communication competence through __________.
answer

active strategies
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_____________ is the ancient philosopher who created specific rhetorical criteria for public speaking that are still used today.
answer

Aristotle
question

Sheila and Jacob don’t like each other very much. From the very beginning, Jacob has resented Sheila for stealing his best friend away from him. At the same time, while Sheila didn’t have a problem with Jacob initially, she now ignores him every time they all hang out together. Neither party has done anything overtly offensive toward one another. If that’s the case, then which of the following best explains how the animosity between Sheila and Jacob began?
answer

Jacob’s resentment manifested itself in negative behavior toward Sheila. This triggered Sheila to behave negatively toward Jacob.
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Perspective taking is associated with ____________.
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empathy
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Arbitrary elements used to represent things, processes, ideas, or events in ways that make communication possible are called ____________.
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symbols
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Which of the following statements about communication competence is true?
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We learn communication competence from our successes and failures.
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Competent communication requires that individuals ____________.
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show an expanded range of responses
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Dyadic interaction is sometimes considered identical to __________.
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interpersonal communication
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What is the most common type of communication?
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Dyadic
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In the transactional model of communication, individuals who participate in an interaction are known as ____________.
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communicators
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Seth has a great idea for a new public relations campaign at work. Consequently, Seth writes a detailed proposal and e-mails it to his boss. It has now been two days, and Seth still hasn’t heard back about his proposal. Seth assumes that his boss didn’t like his work and sends an apologetic e-mail with the request that his boss disregard his proposal. Which of the following best explains why Seth reacted the way he did?
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Seth has low cognitive complexity.
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Which of the following would be considered non-mediated communication?
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Face-to-face interaction
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Which of the following best exemplifies asynchronous communication?
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Text messaging
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Nadia suspects Nick is lying because he keeps repeating the same details while explaining why he was late for their study group. As this example shows, _____________ communication can be counterproductive.
answer

excessive
question

Which method of communication provides the greatest level of control over how the message is composed?
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Handwritten message
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Nick has just learned from the CEO that he needs to lay off fifteen workers. He cares a great deal about his employees and wants to convey this information in the best way possible. What medium should Nick use to tell his employees that they’re fired?
answer

Face-to-face
question

In an online class, you don’t know when you get a question correct until the end of a quiz, when a final score appears. During your favorite video game, each time you reach a new level, the screen bursts into color and music plays. These experiences differ in terms of ____________.
answer

feedback
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Sandy really likes talking to Belinda. Every time she speaks with her, Sandy feels calmer and less anxious. Sandy is using her interactions with Belinda to fulfill her ____________.
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physical needs
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Chris once used his Twitter and Facebook accounts to post photos of him engaging in illegal drug use. He is now having trouble getting a job after prospective employers view his accounts. This is an example of social media’s ____________.
answer

permanence
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Her TV audience knows the local newscaster well, yet she knows very few of the people who make up her audience, because __________ communication usually involves little contact between senders and receivers.
answer

mass
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Three of the most common barriers to listening are impatience, inattentiveness, and ____________.
answer

eagerness to defend one’s point of view
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Research has indicated a link between heavy reliance on mediated communication and ____________.
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increased loneliness
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_____________ describes situations in which participants interact smoothly and with a high degree of satisfaction but without necessarily understanding one another well.
answer

Coordination
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Julia told Kacie that Taylor was “loaded.” Kacie took this to mean that Taylor had had too much to drink, whereas Julia had meant that he was very wealthy. This is an example of the concept that ____________.
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meaning is in people, not words
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When we say that communication is relational, what does that mean?
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Communication arises out of our interactions with others.
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____________ is the transmission of messages without considering consequences, while ____________ is the impulsive transmission of angry and hostile messages.
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Disinhibition; flaming
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You have sensitive information that you want to remain private. The safest medium for transmitting this information would be ____________.
answer

telephone
question

By communicating pleasure, affection, and inclusion, we satisfy our ____________.
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social needs
question

Alicia spends all day at work on the Internet and then all night on social networking sites looking at the many interesting things her friends have been doing. She hasn’t been seeing her family or friends, nor has she been getting out of the apartment. Moreover, Alicia is becoming depressed and is starting to dislike her life. What is the best advice you could give Alicia right now?
answer

Regulate time spent on the Internet
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James is great at talking to his peers but is not so skillful when communicating with authority figures. This illustrates how communication competence is ____________.
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situational
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Eighty percent of cyberbullies admit that their only reason for bullying is because this activity ____________.
answer

is funny
question

David and Chelsea are having an argument. During the course of the argument, Chelsea reveals that she is upset with David because he spends too much time at work and not enough time with her. She says she feels abandoned, lonely, and in need of support. David tries to reassure Chelsea, but nothing he says seems to make a difference. What would be the most appropriate course of action for David to take at this moment?
answer

Express empathy for Chelsea
question

Cassandra is mad at her friend Nicole for spreading rumors about her at school. Consequently, Cassandra decides to get back at her by posting embarrassing pictures of her online. She also persists in making hateful and hurtful comments about Nicole on her social networking page. Cassandra’s behavior can be recognized as ____________.
answer

cyberbullying
question

Which statement best represents the connection between communication, understanding, and relationships?
answer

Partners can communicate with high satisfaction without necessarily understanding each other well.
question

Without much thought, Dwight forwarded an e-mail containing a sexually suggestive joke to his entire department. Many people were offended by the e-mail and a sexual harassment complaint was filed with human resources. Dwight’s behavior could be considered a form of ____________.
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disinhibition
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When there is a time gap between when a message is sent and when it’s received, one is using ____________.
answer

asynchronous communication
question

Union workers in a large manufacturing company have been working with management to renegotiate their contract. It’s been three weeks, and the negotiations haven’t gotten very far. While everyone has effectively communicated their demands, neither side wants to compromise or make concessions. Which of the following is most likely causing the stalemate between management and employees?
answer

Differing environments of employees and management
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Audiences tend to listen more carefully during the ____________ of a speech.
answer

beginning and ending
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A(n) __________ asks audience members to actively imagine something.
answer

hypothetical example
question

Marsha is a talented speaker and she has developed a level of comfort with speaking such that she is able to compose her speaking notes on napkins while drinking her morning coffee. During an hour-long speech she gave recently, Marsha felt confident in her points but noticed her audience’s attention waning after her introduction. Which of the following options should Marsha have written to distribute to her audience in addition to her speaking notes?
answer

Formal outline
question

“It’s clear that overfishing is a serious threat to the black cod population in our waters,” Marshawn said in the introduction of his recent speech about sustainable black cod fishing, “but what are our alternatives?” Remembering the functions of transitions mentioned in Chapter 12, Marshawn’s transitional question suggests ____________.
answer

an internal preview
question

Which of the following techniques is an instance of supporting a point with statistics?
answer

Incorporating relevant data, either through concrete images or citation
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Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a climax pattern?
answer

A suspenseful narrative that could draw an audience’s interest
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A(n) __________ gives your audience a literal explanation for key terms in your speech and can be especially helpful if those terms are unfamiliar to your audience or are being used in an unusual way.
answer

definition
question

In a recent speech to the members of his labor union, Gabriel started his introduction on a humorous note by telling a brief story about his encounter with a man at a bus stop earlier that week. Gabriel then explained how this meeting was related to the union’s recent disputes with the management of several companies. Gabriel’s story was an instance of using a(n) ____________ to support a point in a speech.
answer

anecdote
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A ____________ pattern organizes a speech based on chronology.
answer

time
question

Which of the following techniques is an instance of supporting a point with an anecdote?
answer

Telling a relevant story about a personal experience
question

Alan Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is an example of which speech organizing pattern?
answer

Problem-solution
question

A(n) ____________ outline uses a consistent format and set of symbols to identify the structure of ideas.
answer

formal
question

A(n) __________ is a brief personal story used to illustrate or support a point in a speech.
answer

anecdote
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A ____________ pattern organizes a speech by describing an unsatisfactory state of affairs and then proposing a plan to remedy the problem.
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problem-solution
question

Jan spent several hours last night writing and formatting a presentable outline to accompany her presentation at today’s meeting. She printed a copy for herself, but now that she’s standing in front of her coworkers at the meeting, she realizes that she’s not sure how to fill in the gaps between points on her outline. Which of the following options should Jan have written in addition to the presentable outline?
answer

Keyword outline
question

A(n) __________ asks audience members to actively imagine something.
answer

hypothetical example
question

In her recent speech on the potential economic consequences of Detroit’s bankruptcy filing, Emily followed her introduction by describing the problems faced by several suburban areas near the city, moving west to east in order of the areas’ positions around Detroit on a map, and finishing with a description of the consequences for the city itself. Based on the descriptions of speech organizing patterns in Chapter 12, Emily’s speech seems to have been organized in a ____________ pattern.
answer

space
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A(n) ____________ outline is a construction tool used to map out your speech.
answer

working
question

Which of the following techniques is an instance of supporting a point with an example?
answer

Mentioning a specific instance that reflects your larger point
question

“Disastrous oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, though damaging, aren’t the most common danger to wildlife in the Mississippi River Delta,” Sedrick said in a recent speech about dangers faced by wildlife in the Mississippi River Delta. Remembering the functions of transitions mentioned in Chapter 12, Sedrick’s transition indicates ____________.
answer

how a subpoint relates to the main point
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Many teachers suggest that your ____________ should have just enough information listed to jog your memory but not enough to get lost in.
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speaking notes
question

In a recent speech to the members of his labor union, Gabriel started his introduction on a provocative note by sharing a story about a debate he had with a store manager earlier that week when he had tried to return a defective coffeemaker. After telling the story, Gabriel compared several aspects of this exchange to the union’s recent disputes with the management of several companies. Gabriel’s explanation for how his story was related to the union’s recent disputes was an instance of using a(n) ____________ to support a point in a speech.
answer

analogy
question

Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a time pattern?
answer

An examination of attitudes toward a subject at different points in hist
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Which of the following is a primary function of a bibliographic citation?
answer

To enable others to find your source if they choose
question

Which of the following techniques is an instance of supporting a point with testimony?
answer

Referring to a relevant quotation from a highly credible mathematician
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Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a topic pattern?
answer

A plan with different consequences for each of several well-known groups
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Many teachers suggest that your ____________ should have just enough information listed to jog your memory but not enough to get lost in.
answer

speaking notes
question

Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a wave pattern?
answer

An address involving one memorable sentence that applies to each point
question

In a recent speech to the members of his labor union, Gabriel started his introduction on a serious note by telling a story about a news article he read that described a man protesting his working conditions. The man, Gabriel said, had encountered difficulties in his workplace that were similar to the union’s recent disputes with the management of several companies. Gabriel’s use of the man who was protesting his working conditions was an instance of using a(n) __________ to support a point in a speech.
answer

example
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A(n) __________ is an extended comparison that can be used as supporting material in a speech.
answer

analogy
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In a speech, __________ prove(s) a point by citing an authoritative source.
answer

testimony
question

Which of the following options is considered to be the ideal number of main points in a formal outline?
answer

3 to 5
question

Which of the following options is considered to be the ideal number of subpoints for each main point in an outline?
answer

3 to 5
question

A ____________ pattern organizes a speech by arranging points according to logical types or categories.
answer

topic
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A __________ pattern organizes a speech by incorporating repetitions and variations of themes and ideas.
answer

wave
question

Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a topic pattern?
answer

A plan with different consequences for each of several well-known groups
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A ____________ pattern organizes a speech by arranging points according to their physical location.
answer

space
question

A ____________ pattern organizes a speech by describing an unsatisfactory state of affairs and then proposing a plan to remedy the problem.
answer

problem-solution
question

In a recent speech to the members of his labor union, Gabriel started his introduction on a serious note by telling a story about a news article he read that described a man protesting his working conditions. The man, Gabriel said, had encountered difficulties in his workplace that were similar to the union’s recent disputes with the management of several companies. Gabriel’s use of the man who was protesting his working conditions was an instance of using a(n) __________ to support a point in a speech.
answer

example
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A ____________ pattern organizes a speech by building ideas to the point of maximum interest or tension.
answer

climax
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The inverted pyramid, an organizational format that puts the most important ideas in the first few paragraphs, was developed in the field of ____________.
answer

journalism
question

Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a cause-and-effect pattern?
answer

An explanation of the results of a scientific experiment
question

Marsha is a talented speaker and she has developed a level of comfort with speaking such that she is able to compose her speaking notes on napkins while drinking her morning coffee. During an hour-long speech she gave recently, Marsha felt confident in her points but noticed her audience’s attention waning after her introduction. Which of the following options should Marsha have written to distribute to her audience in addition to her speaking notes?
answer

Formal outline
question

Which of the following speech subjects would be best organized in a wave pattern?
answer

An address involving one memorable sentence that applies to each point
question

Which kind of outline is meant to be written informally because its contents are subject to change?
answer

Working outline
question

Jessica is speaking to an audience about her experiences in Japan. She brings her laptop to show some photos and charts from the time she spent there. She is an excellent photographer, and her charts are well put together. During her presentation, however, the battery in her laptop connected to a digital projector begins to die. What best characterizes how she used visual aids?
answer

They were not reliable, but they were attractive.
question

Paul gives a speech that focuses on a music festival that may be coming to the local area. What type of informative speech is he giving?
answer

Speech about events
question

When developing the introduction of a speech, what principle is important?
answer

Preview the thesis.
question

An informative specific-purpose statement will usually be worded to stress audience ___________________.
answer

knowledge and ability
question

“After listening to my speech, the audience will understand how to fill out a local ballot.” This purpose statement is effective because it ____________.
answer

CorrectB. tells what the audience will be able to do
question

A speaker who clarifies ideas and concepts already known but not fully understood by the audience is using ____________.
answer

explanations
question

Troy states in a speech, “Younger people aren’t the biggest users of social media. Over half of all the people using social media are over the age of 50. That’s over 50 percent!” This is an example of _________________.
answer

repetition
question

Kate relays a childhood story to her audience during her speech about finding inner strength. The story revealed how she was able to find the strength to go on after a tragic accident. What guideline did she use to generate audience involvement?
answer

Personalizing her speech
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A speaker who teaches the audience something in a logical, step-by-step manner is using ____________.
answer

instructions
question

Anna is having a hard time with all her social media accounts. Trying to keep up with several platforms, each having over 100 friends, overwhelms her. What best explains what is happening?
answer

Information overload
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Which statement best characterizes how persuasive speaking and informative speaking compare to each other?
answer

Informative speaking generally tends to be noncontroversial.
question

If you have a question-and-answer period after your speech, you might increase your effectiveness by __________________.
answer

paraphrasing confusing questions
question

Chi gives a speech about how engineering is enhanced by communication skills. How would you categorize his speech by content and purpose?
answer

A speech about process and an explanation
question

Any kind of line drawing that shows the most important properties of an object is called a ____________.
answer

diagram
question

Miguel is speaking to a group of teenagers from a high-risk neighborhood. At the beginning of his speech he says, “By the end of this speech you will be able to recognize the pitfalls of negative peer pressure. Teenagers today are under so much pressure to fit in that it is important to understand the difference between positive and negative influences.” From what we know, the two statements can best be categorized as ____________________.
answer

an informative purpose statement and a thesis statement
question

Beth has gathered lots of research on the role that identity plays in purchase decisions. She is eager to present all of her complex findings. She has devised a speech with nine main points. From what we know, which speech guidelines has she likely violated?
answer

Limit the amount of information you present.
question

What is the major advantage of write-as-you-go media such as chalkboards, whiteboards, and polymer marking surfaces?
answer

Spontaneity
question

Which of the following guidelines is essential to follow in the introduction of an informative speech?
answer

Establish the importance of your topic to your audience.
question

A speaker who teaches the audience something in a logical, step-by-step manner is using ____________.
answer

instructions
question

Which of the following are organizational principles that should be addressed in the conclusion of an informative speech?
answer

Provide your audience with a memory aid.
question

The level of commitment and attention that listeners devote to a speech is referred to as ____________.
answer

audience involvement
question

Having your listeners actually do something during your speech is another way to increase their involvement in your message. This is referred to as ____________.
answer

audience participation
question

A speaker who clarifies ideas and concepts already known but not fully understood by the audience is using ____________.
answer

explanations
question

In speaking about the negative effects of using tanning beds, Jordan states, “What I am about to say about UVB rays is important.” This is an example of a(n) ______________.
answer

signpost
question

Creating a reason for your audience to want to listen and learn from your speech is known as ____________.
answer

eliciting information hunger
question

In a question-and-answer period, a speaker may respond to a question by saying, “If I understand your question correctly, I think you are asking how I interpret the legal battle. Am I correct?” This speaker’s response is an example of ____________.
answer

paraphrasing
question

Kate relays a childhood story to her audience during her speech about finding inner strength. The story revealed how she was able to find the strength to go on after a tragic accident. What guideline did she use to generate audience involvement?
answer

Personalizing her speech
question

Troy states in a speech, “Younger people aren’t the biggest users of social media. Over half of all the people using social media are over the age of 50. That’s over 50 percent!” This is an example of _________________.
answer

repetition
question

One of the effective ways a speaker can emphasize important points is by using ____________.
answer

repetition
question

The rule of simplicity states that visual aids ____________.
answer

should clarify, not confuse
question

When developing the introduction of a speech, what principle is important?
answer

Preview the thesis
question

Audience involvement with a speech by use of participation or volunteers will generally have the effect of ____________.
answer

increasing audience comprehension
question

Chi gives a speech about how engineering is enhanced by communication skills. How would you categorize his speech by content and purpose?
answer

A speech about process and an explanation
question

Maria is trying to build her audience’s trust in her speech. How might she best accomplish this?
answer

A vocal citation
question

One information expert estimates that every ____________ days now, we create as much information as we did from the dawn of civilization up until 2003.
answer

2
question

You are trying to convince your audience that Tesla Motors is superior to BMW. You believe this is correct because you’ve reviewed information about each company. This speech can best be classified as a(n) ____________.
answer

persuasive speech
question

Information overload is also commonly known as ____________.
answer

information anxiety
question

Kelly is teaching his audience the steps it takes to make a surfboard. He emphasizes that if the steps are followed correctly, the end result is a beautiful custom-made board. What best classifies the type of informative speech he is giving?
answer

A speech that instructs
question

Robert is a real estate agent who wants to show his audience how housing prices have changed over the past five years. What visual aid is best suited to display this information?
answer

Line chart
question

Paul gives a speech that focuses on a music festival that may be coming to the local area. What type of informative speech is he giving?
answer

Speech about events
question

Anna is having a hard time with all her social media accounts. Trying to keep up with several platforms, each having over 100 friends, overwhelms her. What best explains what is happening?
answer

Information overload
question

Which of the following provides the central idea of the speech?
answer

Thesis statement
question

Which of the following professions would most frequently use memorization as a delivery style?
answer

Actor
question

Deeply rooted beliefs about a concept’s inherent worth or worthiness are known as ____________.
answer

values
question

For his presentation, Bernie would like to educate his audience about adoption laws. Bernie’s general purpose would be to ____________.
answer

inform
question

Brent slurred his words while giving his speech. Which of the following delivery aspects was Brent having difficulty with?
answer

Articulation
question

Which of the following would be considered a demographic characteristic?
answer

Group membership
question

Speakers who exaggerate the negative aspects of a poor speaking experience are engaging in the fallacy of ____________.
answer

overgeneralization
question

Makayla is giving her class speech on the U.S. Declaration of Independence the day before Independence Day. She decides to begin her speech by saying: “Tomorrow is a day of celebration for the United States. It’s a day of fireworks, barbecues, and parades. But we often forget the reason for our celebration. It is the day our founding fathers signed the Declaration of Independence and declared our freedom from British rule.” Makayla is building audience interest by adapting to the ____________.
answer

occasion of the speech
question

Facilitative communication apprehension is __________.
answer

desirable
question

Which of the following best describes how you should go about choosing a topic?
answer

Choose a topic that is right for you, the audience, and the situation.
question

Which of the following is a general purpose as defined by the textbook?
answer

To entertain
question

A purpose statement should ____________.
answer

be results-oriented
question

Joe, a human resources manager at the company, will be giving a presentation about the company’s new sexual harassment policies to ten high-level managers. He knows that the group will be evenly split between women and men. However, he is slated to give his presentation tomorrow, at lunchtime, in one of the smallest rooms in the building. This room is notoriously warm, even in the wintertime. Additionally, he is concerned that a number of the managers may react negatively toward the new policies. When adapting his presentation to the speaking situation, which factor should take precedence?
answer

Occasion of the presentation
question

LexisNexis is a popular collection of which of the following?
answer

Databases
question

Right before LaShonda gets up to deliver her speech, she thinks to herself: “I know that I’m going to drop my notecards on the floor, forget everything I have to say, and look like a complete idiot.” LaShonda is engaging in the fallacy of ____________.
answer

catastrophic failure
question

The first panelist speaks so slowly that the audience’s attention begins to wander. The second panelist speaks so quickly that people can’t understand all of her points. The issue with both speakers is one of ____________.
answer

rate
question

Before beginning work on his presentation, Paul considers the fact that he’d be speaking to a large group of middle-aged women who are long-time members of the Riverside Aquatic Recreational Club. Paul is taking the time to ____________.
answer

analyze the demographics of the audience
question

One strategy for managing debilitative communication apprehension is to ____________.
answer

use nervousness to your advantage
question

Riana was the perfect person to lead a retreat for the elementary school. Because she had worked there for five years before moving to a nearby town, she understood the school employees’ priorities. In other words, she had a clear idea of the ____________.
answer

audience’s purpose
question

“After listening to my speech, my audience will be able to list the five steps for preparing a small-claims case” is an example of a(n) ____________.
answer

purpose statement
question

The highness or lowness of a person’s voice is called ____________.
answer

pitch
question

Speakers who wear businesslike attire are perceived as being more ____________.
answer

credible
question

You frequently speak about the deplorable conditions of the inner city, but you don’t give the same speech everywhere. For example, you know that inner-city residents are interested in different information than policymakers are. Your awareness of these differences shows that you have engaged in effective ____________.
answer

audience analysis
question

A(n) ____________ is a predisposition to respond to something in a favorable or unfavorable way, while a(n) ____________ is an underlying conviction about the truth of something.
answer

attitude; belief
question

While preparing a speech about sushi, you wonder how many of your audience members eat sushi regularly. The best way to find out such information is to ____________.
answer

survey the audience members in advance
question

Howard is having a great deal of anxiety about giving his speech. Because he has a complicated topic and will be using a lot of technical jargon, he’s afraid he might forget information or mispronounce his terms. Mostly, though, he’s worried about looking stupid in front of the class. Which of the following strategies would best help Howard manage his communication apprehension?
answer

Spend more time preparing
question

According to the textbook, which two components must a speaker consider when analyzing a speaking situation?
answer

Audience and occasion
question

Josie feels that all people should be treated with respect and dignity. This is an example of a(n) ____________.
answer

value
question

Carla is having anxiety about giving her speech to her classmates. She’s afraid that she will get up to give her speech and completely forget everything she has to say. Something similar happened to her last year when giving a speech for another class. In that case, her classmates made fun of her for rest of the semester for her mistake. Normally, Carla doesn’t care too much about other people’s opinions. However, she is concerned that her audience may once again develop a negative opinion of her if something horrible were to happen with her speech. Which of the following is most likely the primary cause of her current speaking anxiety?
answer

Her previous speaking experience
question

Following guidelines of evaluation is particularly important when assessing material from ____________.
answer

Wikipedia
question

Jayden will do anything to make sure that the audience likes her and accepts her ideas. She is even willing to compromise her own values and ethics. Jayden is engaging in the fallacy of ____________.
answer

approval
question

Which of the following delivery aspects would likely have the greatest impact on your facial expressions?
answer

Your level of involvement and enthusiasm
question

Ben, the local police chief, was asked by the mayor’s office to read a statement concerning the recent crime activity in the city. Ben would be giving a(n) ____________.
answer

manuscript speech
question

The highness or lowness of a person’s voice is called ____________.
answer

pitch
question

Your teacher unexpectedly asks you to get up and tell the class about your trip to Europe. What type of speech would you be giving?
answer

Impromptu
question

Three criteria for evaluating online research are credibility, objectivity, and ____________.
answer

currency
question

Which of the following allows you to view your topic from an expert’s perspective in ways that may stimulate your own thinking?
answer

Interview
question

Lauren said “doin'” instead of “doing” in her speech. Which articulation error does this exemplify?
answer

Deletion
question

When you picture yourself presenting a successful speech before you give it, you are using ____________.
answer

visualization
question

Maria Lopez has a choice between two political candidates: Daniel Fernandez and Julia Johnson. Maria recognizes both candidates to be equally qualified and feels she can identify with both candidates. Daniel, however, tends to be better dressed and is a more outwardly dynamic and inspired speaker. Also, his television ads air more frequently. In the end, Maria voted for Daniel Fernandez. Based on the information provided, which perceptual tendency probably had the greatest influence on her decision to vote for Daniel over Julia?
answer

Maria paid attention to the candidate who was the most obvious.
question

__________ individuals in the United States are almost twice as likely to be the victims of physical violence.
answer

Transgender
question

Debbie volunteers for a local nonprofit organization and makes annual donations to a number of charities. She does this to show people her selfless and giving nature. Moreover, Debbie believes herself to be a good person, not because she actually thinks she is a good person, but because others admire her for her work. Debbie’s beliefs about herself exemplify __________.
answer

perceived self
question

A stereotype is essentially a(n) __________.
answer

exaggerated belief
question

Lisa doesn’t see herself as being very smart. Today, at school, Lisa finds out that she received a high grade on her history exam. One of her classmates congratulates her, to which Lisa responds, “It was just dumb luck. The professor must be an easy grader.” What is the most likely explanation for Lisa’s response?
answer

Lisa is shaping the situation to fit her self-concept.
question

Which of the following is an advantage of using mediated communication for identity management?
answer

It allows the sender to choose the ambiguity level of the message.
question

When a person’s expectations of an outcome, and subsequent behavior, cause the outcome to occur, it is called __________.
answer

self-fulfilling prophecy
question

Math is your weakest subject. On the first day of college algebra, you tell the student next to you, “I bet I’ll get a D in this course.” At the end of the semester you get a D. This result could be an example of __________.
answer

self-fulfilling prophecy
question

Barbara desperately wants to be seen as professional by her coworkers. So, every morning before work, she carefully reviews her calendar and prepares her notes. She always arrives at work on time wearing a designer suit. She makes sure to happily greet all of her coworkers but doesn’t spend too much time chitchatting as other workers do. She then sits down at her desk and immediately starts working. Barbara’s behavior indicates that she is trying to _______.
answer

manage her identity
question

Which of the following is an accurate statement about first impressions?
answer

After forming an initial opinion, we tend to interpret a person’s behavior in ways that fit our expectations.
question

The ability to construct multiple identities is one element of __________.
answer

communication competence
question

Judy did not correctly complete a task that her supervisor had given her. Judy’s supervisor attributed the unsatisfactory result to Judy’s failure to listen well or to try hard enough. Judy felt that her errors were due to unclear instructions and to her supervisor’s failure to allow enough time to complete the task. Judy’s explanation is an example of __________.
answer

identity management
question

When we say identity management is collaborative, what does that mean?
answer

Each person will modify his or her identity in response to the other’s behavior.
question

Incorrectly thinking that a person’s frown indicates her disapproval of you is a problem of __________.
answer

interpretation
question

Which of the following is an example of a complete perception check?
answer

You didn’t call me back after we had that argument. I wasn’t sure if you were busy or if you were upset with me. Why didn’t you call?
question

Which of the following methods will help you interpret the behavior of others more accurately?
answer

Perception checking
question

You tell a raunchy joke to your coworker. She becomes offended and files a complaint with her supervisor. Where did you go wrong?
answer

You assumed similarity between you and your coworker.
question

__________ means you feel compassion for another person, while __________ means you have a personal sense of what it feels like to be in that person’s shoes.
answer

Sympathy; empathy
question

Which of the following characteristics best fits into a psychological construct schema?
answer

Likes and dislikes
question

Researchers estimate that we inherit what percentage of our personality traits?
answer

40%
question

Which of the following best characterizes a low self-monitor?
answer

Low self-monitors need to be themselves.
question

The significance we attribute to various personal traits depends greatly on which of the following?
answer

Social environment
question

Strolling around the park, you decide to sit down and rest on a park bench. You notice that the park is quite busy today. There is a family playing with their dog, children rollerblading, and a man in a red suit sitting on the bench across from you. People laugh in the distance. Then, a woman quietly sits next to you. Which element in this scenario are you likely going to pay the most attention to?
answer

The man in the red suit
question

Listening to Taylor Swift music always cheers Amanda up. After watching her musical idol and other models on the Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show, however, she feels blue again, increased negativity due to which of the following processes?
answer

Social comparison
question

__________ are habitual, reflexive ways of behaving developed over time.
answer

Scripts
question

The process of arranging information from the environment in a meaningful way is called __________.
answer

organization
question

Snap judgments become particularly problematic when they are based on __________.
answer

stereotyping
question

When you use communication strategies to influence others’ perceptions of you, you are engaging in __________.
answer

identity management
question

Attribution refers to __________.
answer

attaching meaning to behavior
question

Callie is a stay-at-home mom who takes a vacation once a year with her family. On her social networking page, Callie only post pictures of her vacations. Moreover, the pictures she posts only show her in the various locations she’s visited. Even though she loves her family, there are no pictures of her children or her husband on the page. Why do you think Callie has chosen to post only those particular pictures and not others?
answer

Callie wants others to think she is an exciting and adventurous person.
question

By the age of __________, most children have developed a sense of self-worth.
answer

five
question

Maria Lopez has a choice between two political candidates: Daniel Fernandez and Julia Johnson. Maria recognizes both candidates to be equally qualified and feels she can identify with both candidates. Daniel, however, tends to be better dressed and is a more outwardly dynamic and inspired speaker. Also, his television ads air more frequently. In the end, Maria voted for Daniel Fernandez. Based on the information provided, which perceptual tendency probably had the greatest influence on her decision to vote for Daniel over Julia?
answer

Maria paid attention to the candidate who was the most obvious.
question

Young adults (male and female) who frequently comment on peers’ Facebook images are more likely than others to feel __________.
answer

less satisfied with their appearance
question

In the study of communication, narratives __________.
answer

offer a framework for explaining behavior and shaping future communication
question

Which of the following is a disadvantage of being a high self-monitor?
answer

Since high self-monitors often take detached positions, they cannot fully experience situations.
question

Which statement best captures the connection between self-concept and communication?
answer

Self-concept shapes communication and is affected by one’s response to communication.
question

Even though he is terrible at soccer, Luc believes that his parents think he is a good soccer player. So, Luc joins the soccer team. Using your understanding of reflected appraisal, decide which of the following best explains Luc’s reason for joining the soccer team.
answer

Luc actually saw himself as being a good soccer player.

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