sociology final third

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family
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social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children. -everchanging entity -millions of seemingly personal decisions shape the structure of family life in a society
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kinship
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social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption
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extended family vs. nuclear family
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includes parents and children as well as kin vs. one or two parents and their children (most common in us)
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ideal family
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voluntary union of a man and woman in lifelong marriage covenant welcoming of children -standard against which real cases can be compared -definition can change depending on the social and legal context
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changing family in the US
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division of labor and the rise of the \”bread winner system\” (1860-1920) -decline of the bread winner system declines in total fertility increased in life expectancy increased divorce rates increased employment opportunities for women
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marriage patterns
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cultural norms and laws identify people as suitable or unsuitable marriage partners. -industrial societies, laws prescribe monogamy (marriage b/w two people) -polygamy-marriage that unites three or more
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transition and problems in family life
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four out of five people who divorce remarry -historically, the law define women as the property of men -domestic violence was once considered a private, family matter
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alternative family forms
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-29% of families with children under age 18 have only one parent in the home -cohabitation- sharing of a household by and unmarried couple -many women are choosing to remain single, and see having a husband as a matter of choice
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productive and reproductive work
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both types of activities- production and reproduction- are work and are equally important to human survival -reproductive work involves not only bearing children but care giving, managing households, and educating children
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caring for the elderly
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in the US 13% of those 65 and older live with their children or some other relative -in japan 50% of persons 65 and older live with their adult children -caregiver burden- extent to which caregivers believe that their emotional balance, physical health, social life, and financial status suffer because of their caregiver role
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demography
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is a subspecialty within sociology that focuses on the study of human populations with particular emphasis on their size and rate of growth. it measures three key elements: fertility, mortality, migration
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theory of demographic transition
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characteristics of a country’s birth and death rates are linked to its level of industrial or economic development 1)high birth + death rates 2) transition stage 3)low death rates + declining birth rates
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population pyramid
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a series of horizontal bar graphs, each of which represents a different five-year age cohort. population pyramid allows us to view the relative sizes of the age cohorts and to compare the relative numbers or percentages of males and females in each cohort
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cohort
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group of people who share a common characteristic or life event
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religion
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social institution involving beliefs and practices based on a conception of the sacred
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faith
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belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
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essential features common to all religions
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beleifs about the sacred and the profane, rituals, community of worshippers
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sacred
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term describing everything that is regarded as extraordinary and that inspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery and reverence
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profane
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term describing everything that is not sacred, including things opposed to the sacred and things that stand apart from the sacred, albeit not in opposition to it
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rituals
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rules that govern how people must behave in the presence of the sacred to achieve an acceptable state of being
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community of worshipers (or church)
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group whose members hold the same beliefs about the sacred and the profane, who behave in the same way in the presence of the sacred, who gather in body or spirit at agreed-on times to reaffirm their commitment to those beliefs and practices -*durkheim used the word church not mean a building where people gather but to designate a community of worshipers
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religion in the us
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relatively religious nationr tied to social class and ethnicity most claim to be, no more than one third actually are
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religiosity
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importance of religion in a person’s life
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sect
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small community of believers led by a lay ministry, with no formal hierarchy or official governing body to oversee the various religious gatherings and activities -typically composed of people who broke away from a denomination because they came to view it as corrupt
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cults
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very small, loosely organized groups, usually founded by a charismatic leader who attracts people by virtue of his or her personal qualities
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max weber- \”protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism\”
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religion held the key to the emergence of modern capitalism protestant ethic: -personal duty to make and invest money -a move away from tradition thrift -good works show salvation -lead moral lives and work hard -spend only necessities, reinvest the rest -change from catholicism to protestantism
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fundamentalism
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belief in the timeless nature of sacred writings and a belief that such writings apply to all kinds of environments
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liberation theology
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organized religions have a responsibility to demand social justice for the marginalized peoples of the world, especially landless peasants and the urban poor, and to take an active role at the grassroots level to bring about political and economic justice
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religion in a changing society
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secularization civil relgion
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secularization
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historical decline int eh importance of the supernatural and the sacred
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civil religion
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a quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular society. -althoguh some dimensions of religiosity are weakening, citizenship has taken on religious qualities
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future of religions
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religion thrives. people will always ponder purpose, science cannot tell us about: existence of god; purpose of life; an afterlife;mortality
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environmental sociology
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seeks to explain how the consumption patterns of the US and other industrialized countries are connected to environmental destruction
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treadmill of production
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ceaseless increases in production, and by extension, consumption that are needed to sustain the global economy’s success, which is measured by increased profits
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environmental injustice
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unequal distribution of environmental hazards based on racial or socioeconomic status
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changing consumption habits
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environmental sociologists are interested in identifying realistic strategies that countries, communities, and individuals are taking to promote sustainable relationships between humans and their natural environments
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social change
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any significant alteration, modification, or transformation in the organization and operation of social life -social change can be both positive and negative -rate of change has never been faster than it is now
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globablization
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ever increasing flow of goods, services, money, people, information, and culture and across political borders
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urbanization
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transformative process in which people migrate from rural to urban areas and change the way they use the land, interact, and make a living
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mcdonaldisation
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process whereby the principles governing the fast-food industry come to dominate other secotrs of the american economy, society, and the world
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information explosion
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an unprecedented increase in the amount of stored and transmitted data and messages in all media (including electronic, print, radio and television)
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innovation
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invention or discovery of something new- an idea, a process, a practice, a or a tool
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causes of social change
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-invention produces new objects, ideas and social patterns -discovery occurs when people take note of existing elements in the world -diffusion creates change as products, people and info spread from one culture to another -tension and conflict in a society also produce change
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modernity
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social patterns resulting from industrialization. it designates the present in relation to the past
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modernization
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process of social change begun by industrialization
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internet was orignally designed to
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1)transfer info from one site to another quickly and efficiently in the event of war 2) create an info-shairng system without central control
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social change and the internet
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1)speeding up old ways of doing things 2)giving individuals access to ethe equivalent of a printing press 3)allowing people to bypass the formalized hierarchy devoted to controlling the flow of info 4)changing how students learn 5)providing a vehicle by which the lives of people around the world will become more intertwined as they seek to exchange information and mobilize to define and solve a wide range of social problems
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social movement
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a situation in which a substantial number of people organize to change, to resist change, or to undo change in some area of society -civil rights movement, environmental movement, human rights movement; pro-choice movement; right to life movement
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types of social movements
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regressive or reactionary, reformist, revolutionary, counterrevolutionary
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regressive or reactionary
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social movements have the goal of turning back the hands of time to an earlier condition or state-of-being sometimes defined as a \”golden era\”
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reformist
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movements target some specific feature of society as needing change
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revolutionary
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movements seek broad, sweeping, and radical structural changes to a society’s basic social institutions or to the world order
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counterrevolutionary
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movements seek to maintain a social order that reform and revolutionary movements are seeking to change

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