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Sociology Final – Quizzes

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While race refers to ____________________ considered important by a society, ethnicity refers to ________________.
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biological traits; cultural traits
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What is the term for a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged?
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minority group
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What is the term for a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people?
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stereotype
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Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by
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frustration among those “denied” opportunities
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Authoritarian personality theory states that that extreme prejudice
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a personality trait of certain individuals
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While prejudice is a matter of ___________, discrimination is a matter of ____________.
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attitudes; behavior
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Institutional racism or discrimination refers to the fact that
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bias is built into the operation of social institutions
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Which term best characterizes what took place during the reign of terror known as the Holocaust? neocolonialism, assimilation, genocide, or hyper segregation.
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genocide
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Assimilation refers to the pattern by which
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minority gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category
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Which of the following terms refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people? pluralism, assimilation, segregation, ormiscegenation
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segregation
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the systematic study of social behavior and human groups
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Sociology
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Thinker that introduced the concept of the sociological imagination
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C. Wright Mills
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The “framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change” is the
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conflict paradigm
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3 sociologist who played a part in the development of sociology’s structural-functional paradigm
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Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
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successfully combining theory and research, producing a theory that is one of the most frequently cited in deviant behavior, and an attempt to bring macro and micro level analyses together
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Robert Merton’s contributions to sociology
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The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction paradigm is that society is
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the product of people interacting in everyday situations
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manifest function of sports
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providing recreation and physical conditioning
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Herbert Spencer described human society as having much in common with
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the human body
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Karl Marx’s view of the struggle between social classes inspired contemporary
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conflict theory
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Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach, which postulates that people present certain aspects of their personalities while obscuring other aspects, is a derivative of what major theoretical perspective
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interactionist
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Emile Durkheim’s statistical analysis of suicide was an example of what kind of research technique?
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secondary analysis
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When sociologists want to study a possible cause-and-effect relationship, they may engage in what kind of research technique?
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experiment
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In the 1930s, William F. Whyte moved into a low-income Italian neighborhood in Boston. For nearly four years, he was a member of the social circle of ‘corner boys’ that he describes in Street Corner Society. His goal was to gain greater insight into the community established by these men. What type of research technique did he use?
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participant observation
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A researcher can obtain a higher response rate by using which type of survey?
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an interview
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administer a questionnaire to every fifth woman who enters a business office, examine the attitudes of residents of a city by interviewing every 20th names in the city’s telephone book, or study the attitudes of registered Democratic voters by choosing every 10th name found on a city’s list of registered Democrats
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methods of obtaining a random sample
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type of research that sociologist use to ensure that data is statistically represent the population being studied
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sampling
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This exist when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable
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correlation
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The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the
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independent variable
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an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept is an
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operational definition
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The first step in any sociological research project
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collect data
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what term do sociologists use to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects share by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next?
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culture
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Set of concepts that illustrates material culture
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jewelry, art, hairstyles
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Term that is used to describe feelings of disorientation and confusion when encountering values, behaviors, and expectations totally different from those to which one is accustomed.
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culture shock
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Marshal is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape culture fit together, including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs, without judging those elements as being inferior or superior to modern western ways. In doing so what sociological concept is Marshal practicing?
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cultural relativism
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What is a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought?
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language
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the term that refers to how our language determines our consciousness and perceptions of objects and events.
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The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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The expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group’s values
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norms
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In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the festive of light, during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a
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subculture
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When related values overlap and reinforce one another, as with the values of hard work, education, and achievement, what term is sued to describe this relationship?
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value cluster
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Personal computers have become efficient and cost effective when looking up a medical health diagnosis. Regardless, many people refuse to utilize this type of technology support and continue to seek assistance at a physician’s office. What term described this example of change in material culture, while the nonmaterial culture is lagging behind?
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cultural lag
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What is the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?
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socialization
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Bob is on his first date with Mary, whom he really likes. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of
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face-work
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Those places or locations where we learn to be who we are (family, peers, school, etc.) are referred to as
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agents of socialization
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Jean Piaget’s focus was on
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cognitive development
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“If you define a situation as real, it is real in its consequences” is referred to as
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The Thomas Theorem
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Mead describes the active, creative, and spontaneous part of the self as the
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I
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By “taking the role of the other,” Mead had in mind
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imagining a situation from another person’s point of view
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When Cooley used the term “looking-glass self,” he was referring to the fact that
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people see themselves as they think other see them
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Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to strip naked and roll in a tub of mud. This is an example of what can be part of a
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degradation ceremony
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Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the United States foster competition through built-in reward and punishment?
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The interactionist perspective
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George Ritzer maintains that the organizational features of the fast food industry have gradually seeped into many aspects of human social life. He describes the process as the
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McDonaldization of Society
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A large organization that is ideally efficient, has a division of labor, has a hierarchy of authority, and is based on rules and procedures is called a
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bureaucracy
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television news reporter
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example of an achieved status
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This is characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
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primary group
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Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create
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role conflict
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We use this to describe people who have similar characteristics
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social category
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A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is call an
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industrial society
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a group where a coalition is impossible
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dyads
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groups we use as standards to evaluation ourselves are termed as
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reference groups
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Sarah works for the American Hair and Felt Corporation. This group is one of the ________________ groups that Sarah may belong to.
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secondary
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Which sociological perspective would likely contend that the role of the mass media is to provide socialization, enforce social norms through public events, and create social stability and cohesion through collective expericences?
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functionalist perspective
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A new sort of ______ is emerging online: communities developing around common interests or shared identities
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tribalism
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movie and TV scenes showing criminals getting caught by authorities
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one way the media reaffirms proper behavior in society
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People, organizations, and public issues appearing regularly on the covers of prominent magazines is a method used to
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confer status
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The function of media advertising is to support the economy, provide information about products, and underwrite media costs associated with
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promotion of consumption
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refers to the phenomenon whereby massive amounts of coverage result in the audience becoming numb and failing to act on the information regardless of how compelling the issue was presented
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narcotizing dysfunction
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the process by which a relatively small number of people control what eventually reaches the audience is referred to as
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gatekeeping
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Which sociological perspective would be most likely to focus on gatekeeping as a process that reflects a desire to maximize profits by those with power and authority
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conflict perspective
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Worldwide, low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries have far less access than other to the lastest technologies. This gap is referred to as the
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digital divide
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What is the term used for the set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
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dominant ideology
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In sociology, to what does the term deviance refer?
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all violations of social rules
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Which perspective stresses that deviance promostes social unity and social change?
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functionalist
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According to Ravis Hirschi, what is it that affects the effectiveness of our inner controls?
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our bonds to society
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All of the following are deviant responses to anomie as identified by Robert Merton in his strain theory, except: ritualism, rebellion, retreatism, or recidivism
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recidivism
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being imprisoned for murder would be an example of a
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formal santion
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A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called
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crime
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According to strain theory, who give up pursuit of societal goals and means by abusing alcohol or drugs
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retreatists
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Bill was born with a large egg-shaped birthmark on his forehead. His school-mates taunt him and some local villagers believe the mark is a sign of an evil spirit. Bill’s birthmark would be described by sociologists as a
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stigma
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________________ make social life possible by making behavior predictable
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norms
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Consumer fraud, bribery, and income tax evasion are considered
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white collar crime
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When one ranks high on one dimension of SES but lower on the other dimensions of SES, this is called
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status inconsistency
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The term socioeconomic status (SES) refers to a combination of 3 measures of social class. These are:
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income, education, occupational prestige
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___________ theorist see stratification as a system of domination and subordination in which those with the most resources exploit and control others
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conflict
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most of the poor in the United States are
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white
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the ______ is the term that refers to a trend in U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women
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feminization of poverty
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refers to the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next
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intergenerational mobility
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________ mobility refers to changes in society that cause large number of people to move up or down the class ladder
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structural
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are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today
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children
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social ______ is a large collection of people who rank closely to one antoher in wealth, power, and prestige
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structure
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Marx believed that an individual’s social class placement was based solely on a person’s
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relationship to the means of production
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the number of deaths to infants divided by babies born in that year multiplied by 1000 is called
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infant mortality rate
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are companies that operate across many national boundaries
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multinational corporations
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Which global stratification theory views the economic development of countries as stemming from technological change and will gradually improve the lives of those in developing countries?
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Modernization theory
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a system by which Western natiosn became wealthy by taking raw materials from colonized societies and reaping profits from prducts finished in the homeland?
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colonialism
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According to world systems theory, those nations that are the poor, largely agricultural countries of the world are called
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peripheral countries
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The majority of the world’s population lives in
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the poorest countries
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The area of common culture along the border between Mexico and the United States is called
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Borderlands
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The total output of goods and services produced by residents of a country each year plus the income from nonresident sources, divided by the size of the population is called
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gross national income
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The practice by industrialized nations of controlling the least industrialized nations through debts owed to the most indstrualized nations but not thru direct political involvment is referred to as
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neocolonialism
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England, one the nations in which industrial capitalism first developed would, according to the world system theory, be a ________ nation
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core
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a form of polygamy when women can have more than one husband is called
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polyandry
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a form of marriage in which a person can have several spouses in hsi or her lifetime but can have only one spouse at a time
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serial monogamy
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a set of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption who share the responsibility for reproducing and caring for member os society is called
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family
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a kinship system in which both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important is called
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bilateral kinship
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a collection of people in which relatives in addition to parents and childre such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles live in the same home is called
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extended family
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the family that one grows up in
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family of orientation
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when members of a group have a tendency to marry other members within the group is called
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endogamy
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which sociological perspective argues that the american family contributes to societal injustice, denies women opportunities that are extended to men, and limits freedom in sexual expression and mate selection
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conflict perspectives
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a society in which men are expected to dominate faimly decision making is called a
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patriarchal society
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the practice of living together as a male-female couple without marrying is called
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cohabitation
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in contrast to the natural elements of everyday life, Durkheim described the supernatural aspects of life as being
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sacred
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giving meaning to the devine and defining the spiritual world are part of religion’s
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manifest funcitons
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what system is used in schools to sort students into different educational programs on the basis of their perceieved abilities?
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tracking
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Which sociological perspective emphaizes the integrative power of educaiton in human society
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functionalist perspective
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What did Weber call the self-denying approach to life practiced by members of various religions
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the Protestant ethic
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a religious organization that is recognized as teh national or offical religion is known as an
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ecclesia
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by helping to integrate immigrant into a society, religion tends to promote
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assimilation
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an increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field is called
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credentialism
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in the U.S., schoolchildren are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as
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the hidden curriculum
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facing east toward Mecca while saying one’s morning prayers is a characteristic of the Muslim religion. This behavior is an example of a religious
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ritual