Sociology Final: Chapter 8

question

In politics, what distinction does Carol Brown hold?
answer

She was the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
question

What is the normal chromosome configuration for a male?
answer

XY
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Which of the following is not an example of sexual harassment?
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A high school boy acting obnoxious around a girl he is attracted to
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Why do most acquaintance rapes go unreported to authorities?
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The victim feels partially responsible because she knows the perpetrator.
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What is the term for gender discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home?
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the child penalty
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The first wave of the women’s movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch of the movement?
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reforming all the institutions of society
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Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?
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Women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics.
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What conclusion did George Murdock make following his study of 324 societies?
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Every society associates certain activities with one sex or the other.
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Even when women break through the crackling glass ceiling, they still confront gender ________that portray(s) them in a less favorable light than men.
answer

stereotypes
question

Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veterans’ study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
answer

Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
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What act did members of the National Women’s Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?
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They picketed the White House.
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In 1890, women made up about ________ of the U.S. labor force. Today, they represent almost ________.
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20; 50
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According to sociologists, why do men and women typically perform different types of work?
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It is a product of socialization and social control.
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Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at the Acme Tool Company, although Jim’s title is slightly different from Joan’s. Jim has received a higher starting salary. What do sociologists call this form of employment discrimination?
answer

the testosterone bonus
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In which profession have women made the greatest change in earning professional degrees compared to the number of degrees conferred to men?
answer

dentistry
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What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?
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feminism
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Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?
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It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
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Who proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for \”mothering\” than men, which is overlaid in culture?
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Alice Rossi
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Which of the following statements best describes how feminists view sexual harassment?
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It is based on the structural problems imbedded in society.
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What activity did Marvin Harris link to the emergence of sex discrimination and men gaining the upper hand?
answer

warfare and hand-to-hand combat
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Of the following choices, the doctorate conferred with the greatest percentage of women recipients is ________, while the doctorate with the greatest percentage to men is ________.
answer

psychology; engineering
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The age range of women most likely to be victims of rape is ________.
answer

16 to 19
question

Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________.
answer

the \”glass ceiling\”
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According to __________ patriarchy could have had different origins in different places.
answer

Gerda Lerner
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The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person’s sex is ________.
answer

gender stratification
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Gender Stratification
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Males’ and females’ unequal access to property, power, and prestige.
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Sex
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Biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primary and secondary sex characteristics.
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Gender
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The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity of femininity.
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Patriarchy
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Men-as-a-group dominating women-as-a-group; authority is vested in males.
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Feminism
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The philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal; organized activities on behalf of this principle.
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Glass Ceiling
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The mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work.
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Sexual Harassment
answer

The abuse of one’s position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone.

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