Sociology Exam 2 Quiz Questions

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was:
private property
Adam Ferguson and John Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
efficiency
What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future?
assets
From Thomas Malthus’s perspective, what keeps the population in check?
inequality
The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?
bourgeois
A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:
meritocratic
An example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice is:
Affirmative action
Denise, who comes from a lower-middle-class family, obtained a college degree, interned at a company, worked at that company for many years, and is now its CEO. Denise’s experiences support the idea of:
meritocracy
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
petit bourgeoisie
The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:
high skilled and low skilled.
A researcher studies the effects of gender by comparing people’s experiences before undergoing sex changes and then again after their sex changes (e.g., like the Donald to Deirdre case mentioned in your text). The researcher uses a statistical technique called individual fixed effects, which involves:
comparing an outcome across time as some factor changes.
While the notion of sex refers to biological characteristics, the concept of gender refers to ____________ characteristics.
social
Judith Lorber believes that gender is a social institution because it is:
a major structure organizing our day-to-day experiences.
Although a binary sex system imposes order in the world and helps us make sense of a complicated mass of populations, it also:
limits our ability to accept difference.
Gender structures social relationships between people unequally. This is a statement that would be supported by which group?
feminists
Which of the following is one of the reasons why sociologists view gender as a social construction rather than a biological given?
Our understandings of, categorizations of, and behaviors toward what it means to be a man or woman have changed throughout history.
In Navajo tribes, there are three genders. Which of the following is their third gender category?
nadle
Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as the:
dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history.
Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nationality, and religion. Which group has made the case that early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
black feminists
Why do parents and surgeons push to assign a sex to a genitally ambiguous child?
social discomfort and fear of difference
Your textbook defines poverty as a condition of deprivation due to:
economic circumstances
What method is usually used to evaluate poverty?
objective analyses of statistics and economics
A politician who argues that poverty causes people to reject the practices of “mainstream” society is making a(n) ____________ argument?
culture of poverty
Government offices administering food stamps:
are not always optimally located for recipients
Minimizing the amount of time welfare programs demand of their recipients was one of the many rationales behind:
the negative income tax
Your text suggests that the researchers for the negative income tax should have focused on:
the children rather than the parents
According to the underclass thesis, the poor are:
deviant and dangerous to mainstream society
Social Darwinism suggests that only the fittest survive, that people (and plants and animals) who are the smartest and most capable for survival are the ones who succeed in a society. This can be compared to:
Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray’s bell curve thesis
Poverty has a strong effect on children’s life chances because:
they experience material deprivation and it affects their parents’ parenting behaviors
What drives American poverty rates?
lopsided economic rewards
Historically, physicians did not have particularly high prestige, but their power did peak, according to some sociologists, around:
the 1980s
One of the key traits of the medical profession is its focus on:
peers
Which of the following is one of the ways that doctors establish their power?
use a desk between doctor and patient
Physicians in ancient Rome tended to have lower prestige. This was because:
the surgeons evolved from barbers.
One can best equate homeopathy to:
vaccines
Reproductive technology has increased the number of multiple births, which leads to the ethical issue of:
whether to abort some of the embryos
Inequality creates ____________, which affects our height through stress reactions
psychological stress
Poor diet during adolescence can be detrimental to growth potential because:
it is one of the periods in life in which a growth spurt takes place
The longevity discrepancy between blacks and whites may be a sign of:
social inequality
Which type of family has higher child mortality rates?
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