Sociology Chpt 3

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Culture
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The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society
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Material culture
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Physical and tangible creations that members of society make, use, and share
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Symbols, language, values, and norms
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What are the four nonmaterial components of culture that are common to all societies?
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Cultural universals
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Customs and practices that exist in all societies and include activities and institution such as storytelling, families, and laws
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Symbol
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Anything that meaningfully represents something else
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Language
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A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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The proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers
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Values
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Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture
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Ideal culture
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The values and standards of a behavior that people in a society profess to hold
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Real culture
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The values of standards and behavior that people actually follow
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Norms
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Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
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Sanctions
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Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior
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Folkways
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Informal norms or every day customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture; right or rude
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Mores
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Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture; right and wrong
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Taboos
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Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable
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Laws
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Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislators and are enforced by formal sanctions
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Technology
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The knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into usable form, and the knowledge and skills required to use them after they are developed
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Cultural lag
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William Ogburn’s term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and it’s moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture)
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Homogeneous societies
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Areas that include people who share a common culture and who are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds
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Heterogeneous societies
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Areas that include people dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity
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Subculture
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A category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart and some significant manner from the dominant culture
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Counterculture
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A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles
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Culture shock
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The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life
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Ethnocentrism
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The practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture
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Cultural relativism
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The belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be reviewed and analyzed by the cultures own standards
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High culture
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Classical music, Opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences, composed primarily of members of the upper-middle and upper classes, who have the time, money, and knowledge assumed to be necessary for its appreciation
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Popular culture
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Activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes. These usually include rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, and television soap operas and sitcoms.
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Cultural imperialism
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The extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations
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True
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True or False: Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior, and material things that form a way of life.
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False
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True or False: An example of nonmaterial culture would be the types of vehicles people use to get around.
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True
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True or False: Experiencing an unfamiliar culture can generate culture shock.
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True
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True or False: Symbols refer to anything that carries meaning that is recognized by people who share a culture.
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False
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True or False: The Census Bureau reports that only 10 different languages are spoken in the United States.
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True
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True or False: Symbols allow people to make sense of their surroundings.
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False
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True or False: Cultural transmission cannot take place unless people have a written language.
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False
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True or False: In high-income countries such as the United States, everyone has the ability to read and write.
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True
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True or False: Values are standards that serve as broad guidelines for living.
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True
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True or False: Mores are norms that have great moral significance.
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False
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True or False: Across the United States, mores vary more than folkways.
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True
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True or False: Values and norms help to define a society’s \”ideal culture.\”
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True
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True or False: Technology refers to knowledge people use to make a way of life in their surroundings.
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False
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True or False: The Amish way of life accepts most of the U.S.’s popular culture.
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False
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True or False: Japan is more multicultural than the United States.
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True
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True or False: Most people participate in numerous subcultures without necessarily becoming very committed to any of them.
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True
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True or False: Cultural lag refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
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True
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True or False: Cultural change results from invention, discovery, and diffusion.
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False
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True or False: Cultural relativism means using your own cultural standards to evaluate another culture.
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Cultural transmission
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The process by which one generation passes culture to the next
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Cultural diffusion
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The process of spreading culture from one location to the next
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Yes
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Are society and culture interdependent?
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Individualism, achievement and success, activity and work, science and technology, progress and material comfort, efficiency and practicality, equality, morality and humanitarianism, freedom and liberty, and ethnocentrism.
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Name some core American values.
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Prescriptive norms
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States what behavior is appropriate or acceptable
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Proscriptive norms
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States what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable
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Ideal and real culture
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What is the relationship between values and human behavior?
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William Graham Sumner
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Who was the US sociologist who established the difference between folkways and mores?

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