Sociology Chapter 4- Social Structure

question

social structure
answer

network of interrelated statuses and roles
question

status
answer

socially defined position in a group or society
question

role
answer

behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
question

ascribed status
answer

status given that has not been earned
question

achieved status
answer

status that is acquired by the individual on the basis some special skill, knowledge, or ability
question

master status
answer

can be achieved or ascribed, tends to define who you are
question

reciprocal roles
answer

a role that is based on another
question

role expectation
answer

determined by society as behavior fitting a role
question

role performance
answer

role behavior doesn’t match expectations
question

role set
answer

every status has more than one role, which is a role set
question

role conflict
answer

MULTIPLE, one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another
question

role strain
answer

SINGULAR, occurs when people have a difficult time meeting the role expectations of a single status
question

social institution
answer

system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to meet one or more of the basic needs of society
question

group
answer

functions are to define boundaries, select leaders, assign tasks, control members’ behavior, make decisions, and set goals
question

aggregate
answer

group of people gathered together in the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interactions
question

social category
answer

group of people who share a common trait or status
question

dyad
answer

group with 2 members
question

triad
answer

group with 3 members
question

small group
answer

group with few enough members that everyone is able to interact on a face-to-face basis
question

primary group
answer

interact over a long period of time on a direct, personal basis, intimate and face-to-face
question

secondary group
answer

interaction is impersonal and temporary, casual and limited to personal involvement
question

reference group
answer

any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they often adopt
question

in group
answer

group an individual belongs to and identifies with
question

out group
answer

any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with
question

social network
answer

web relationship that is formed by the sum total of an individual’s interaction with other people
question

subsistence strategy
answer

the way in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
question

division of labor
answer

specialization by the individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
question

preindustrial society
answer

can be subdivided into hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, or agriculutral
question

industrial society
answer

the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity
question

postindustrial society
answer

economic activity centers on the production of information and the provision of service
question

exchange
answer

individuals, groups, or societies interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions
question

competition
answer

2 or more persons or groups that oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
question

conflict
answer

deliberate attempt to control by force, oppose, harm, or resist the will of another person or persons
question

cooperation
answer

when 2 or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people
question

accommodation
answer

state of balance between cooperation and conflict
question

formal organization
answer

large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
question

bureaucracy
answer

ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
question

rationalization
answer

process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculations, measurement, and control
question

voluntary organization
answer

nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest
question

oligarchy
answer

tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
question

major social institutions (7)
answer

1. religion 2. family 3. education 4. politics 5. economy 6. media 7. business
question

requirements of a group (4)
answer

1. at least 2 people 2. there must be interaction 3. shared expectations 4. common identity
question

ways that groups differ (3)
answer

1. length of time they remain together 2. organizational structure 3. size
question

forms of accommodation (4)
answer

1. compromise 2. truce 3. mediation 4. arbitration
question

characteristics of Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies (5)
answer

1. division of labor 2. ranking of authority 3. employment based on formal qualification 4. rules and regulation 5. specific lines of promotion and advancement
question

criticisms of bureaucracies (5)
answer

1. self continuation 2. the peter principle 3. red tape 4. iron law of oligarchy 5. parkinson’s law

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member