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Sociology Chapter 4 Answers

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socialization
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the cultural process of learning to participate in group life
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total institutions
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place in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by those in charge
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mass media
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impersonal communications on a vast audience
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self-concept
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an image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people
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peer group
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social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
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imitation stage
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(1 and a half – 2 years old) children imitate the physical and verbal behavior of significant others without understanding
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play stage
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(3 – 4 years) involves acting and thinking as another person would. the children imagine the world through the eyes of another and assume one role at a time
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game stage
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(4+ years) many roles are considered at once; they anticipate others actions; special rules (norms). they know who should be doing what
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desocialization
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the process of giving up values, old norms, attitudes, and behavior
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looking-glass self
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self-concept based on what you believe others think of you
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resocialization
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the process of adopting new norms, attitudes, and behaviors
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hidden curriculum
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the informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in preparation for life
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anticipatory socialization
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the voluntary process of preparing to accept new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
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generalized other
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an integrated concept of norms, values, and beliefs of ones society
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“me”
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part of self concept of norms, values, and beliefs of ones society
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“I”
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part of self that is spontaneous, unpredictable, and creative. Ask in extreme situations of rage to excitement
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Role taking
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assuming the viewpoint of someone else and using that viewpoint to shape self concept
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reference group
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Group norms and values are used to guide behavior; group with whom you identify
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significant others
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people whose judgment is important to our self-concept
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socialization- functionalism
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stresses the importance of groups working together to create a stable society
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socialization – conflict perspective
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views socialization in as a way to maintain the status quo
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socialization – symbolic interactionism
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Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead. Challenge the idea that biology determine human behavior
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discuss the role socialization plays in human development
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invents animals the light can be centered in their emotional and social growth. They learn a language, walking, expression of emotions, and etc.
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describe the effects of extreme isolation on children
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they become distressed, withdrawn, and hostile adults. Some kid make up for the lost time, and suffer from lack of language and basic skills like walking
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how is role taking different from the looking glass process
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rotating is more so using and viewpoint of someone else to shape your behavior, while the looking glass self doesn’t necessarily mean your behavior will change
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it was the role as a family, school, peer group and media and socializing young people
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Family – have the greatest impact and are the first to teach the skills, values, and beliefs School – widens range of knowledge from socialization with people different than you peer group – how common values and beliefs and shake short-term interest media – FX attitudes and behaviors based on vast audiences
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gave an example of desocialization and the effect it has on people
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example – going to prison. Effects – lack of communication, lack of physical contact, could cause a person shyness and irritability, and pins on spoon feeding
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why does the process of anticipatory socialization generally not occur in prison or mental hospital but does occur on college campuses
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prison has nothing to look forward to – no need to prepare. College exciting in a different way of life that is positive, therefore one would generally prepare for this new part of their life