Sociology Chapter 16

Urbanization
movement involving the concentration of the population in cities.

Ernest W. Burgess
developed the concentric zones model of urban structure.

birthrate
calculated by dividing the number of live births in a particular year by the total population for that year and multiplying by 1,000.

urban ecology
approach that examines the relationship between people and the urban environment.

growth rate
calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birthrate and converting to a percentage.

population
number of people living in an area.

urban anomie theory
holds that the city is an anonymous and unfriendly place that carries serious negative consequences for those who live there.

mortality
number of deaths in a society.

fertility
actual number of births occurring to women of childbearing age.

Homer Hoyt
developed the sector model of urban structure.

subculture theory
holds that the size and diversity of the city encourage formation of primary group relationships among people with similar interests.

fecundity
biological capability to bear children.

demography
area of sociology devoted to the study of human populations.

urban sprawl
poorly planned development on the edge of cities and towns.

infant mortality rate
used as a general measure of the overall health and quality of life in a society.

concentric zone
city spreads outward from center resulting in zones.

sector
city grows in wedge shaped sectors outward from the center to the edges of the city.

multiple nuclei
city develops around several centers of activity or “nuclei” devoted to specialized land use.

anomie
city is anonymous, unfriendly, and carries negative consequences for residents.

compositional
greater diversity of city residents leads to greater variety of lifestyles.

subculture
people can find others with similar interests in diverse cities; some people form close ties.

preindustrial agricultural societies
high birth rates, high death rates which results in a stable population with little growth and little decline.

industrial phase
high birth rates and rapid growth which results in improved medical techniques, sanitation, and increased food production.

developed industrial economy
effective birth control methods cause decrease in birth rates and low death rates which results in a stable population and a slow growth with advancing technology.

malthusian theory
population tends to increase faster, at a geometrical ratio, than the means of subsistence, which increases at an arithmetical ratio, and that this will result in an inadequate supply of the goods supporting life unless war, famine, or disease reduces the population or the increase of population is checked.

migration rate
the annual difference between in-migration and out-migration.

migration
the movement of people from one specified area to another.

over-urbanization
a situation in which more people are living in a city than can be supported in terms of jobs and facilities.

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