Sociology Ch 18: Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change

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Collective Action
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action that take place in groups and diverges from the norm of the situation (ex protest)
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Convergence Theory
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where collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather in the same place
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Contagion Theory
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collective action that arises because of people’s tendency to conform with others who are in close contact
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Emergent Norm Theory
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theory of collective action where a keynoter or leader directs the masses
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Social Movement
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Collective behavior that is purposeful, organized, and institutionalized but not ritualized
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Alternative Social Movements
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social movements that seek the most limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people (ex. Mothers Against Drunk Driving)
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Redemptive Social Movements
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social movements that target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in behavior
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Reformative Social Movements
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Social movements that advocate fore limited social change across an entire society
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Revolutionary Social Movements
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social movements that advocate the radical reorganization of society
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Classical Model of Social Movement
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model of social movements based on a concept structural weakness in society that results in the psychological disruption of individuals
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Resource-mobilization Theory
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you need resources to have a successful social movement
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Political Process Model
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model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities. When these are favorable to a particular challenger, the chances are better for the success of a social movement led by this challenger
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Emergence
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the first stage of a social movement; the social problem is being addressed and first identified
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Coalescence
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the second stage of a social movement in which resources are mobilized (concrete action is being taken) around the problem
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Institutionalization or Routinization
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the final stage of a social movement in which it is institutionalized and a formal structure develops to promote the cause
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Social Movement Organizations (SMO’s)
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a group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement; SMOs also often raise money, clarify goals, and structure participation in the movement (ex. Pro Choice America)
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Grassroots Organization
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type of social movement organization that relies on high levels of community-based membership participation to promote social change. It lacks a hierarchical structure and works through existing political structures.
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Premodernity
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Social relations characterized by concentric circles of social affiliation, a low degree of division of labor, relatively undeveloped technology and traditional social norms.
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Modernity
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social relations characterized by rationality bureaucratization and objectivity as well as individuality created by non concentric, but overlapping group affiliations
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Postmodernity
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social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative with pastiche, and multiple perhaps even conflicting identities resulting from disjointed affiliations

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