Sociology Ch. 14 – Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change

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Collective action
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action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation
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Convergence theory
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Theory of collective action stating that collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather in the same place
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Contagion theory
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theory of collective action claiming that collective action arises because of people’s tendency to conform to the behaviour of others with whom they are in close contact.
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Emergent norm theory
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theory of collective action emphasizing the influence of keynoters in promoting particular norms
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Social movement
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collective behavior that is purposeful, organized, and institutionalized but not ritualized; purposive efforts by groups of people to bring about changes they think necessary and desirable in society.
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Alterative social movements
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social movements that seek the most limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people
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Redemptive social movements
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Social movements that target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in behavior
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Reformative social movements
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social movements that advocate for limited social change across an entire society
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Revolutionary social movements
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Social movements that advocate the radical reorganization of society
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Classical model
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model of social movements based on a concept of structural weakness in society that results in the psychological disruption of individuals
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Resource-mobilization theory
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model of social movements that emphasizes political context and goals but also states that social movements are unlikely to emerge without the necessary resources
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Political process model
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model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities. When these are favorable to a particular challenger, the chances are better for the success of a social movement led by this challenger
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Emergence
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the first stage of a social movement, occurring when the social problem being addressed is first identified
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Coalescence
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the second stage of a social movement, in which resources are mobilized (that is, concrete action taken) around the problems outlined in the first stage
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Routinization or institutionalization
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the final stage of a social movement in which it is institutionalized and a formal structure develops to promote the cause
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Social movement organization (SMO)
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a group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement; smos also often raise money, clarify goals and structure participation in the movement
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Grassroots organization
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A type of social movement organization that relies on high levels of community-based participation to promote social change. It lacks a hierarchical structure and works through existing political structures
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Premodernity
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social relations characterized by concentric circles of social affiliation, a low degree of division of labor, relatively undeveloped technology, and traditional social norms.
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Modernity
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social relations characterized by rationality, bureaucratization, and objectivity – as well as individuality created by nonconcentric, but overlapping, group affiliations
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Postmodernity
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social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative with pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations
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Modernization
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the process and impact of becoming more modern. Modernization has been an important focus of sociology since its origins in the 19th century
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Social Change
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refers to the transformation of culture, behavior, social institutions, and social structure over time.
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Results of Modernization
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First, as societies evolve, they become much larger and more heterogeneous; Second, is a loss of traditional ways of thinking; Third; the growth of individual freedom and autonomy.
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Durkheim’s mechanical solidarity
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characteristic of small, traditional societies, which stifle individual freedom
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Durkheim’s organic solidarity
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the division of labor, in which everyone has to depend on everyone else to perform their jobs. This interdependence of roles, Durkheim said, creates a solidarity that retains much of the bonding and sense of community found in premodern societies.
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Functionalist View of social change
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Society is in a natural state of equilibrium. Gradual change is necessary and desirable and typically stems from such things as population growth, technological advances, and interaction with other societies that brings new ways of thinking and acting. However, sudden social change is undesirable because it disrupts this equilibrium. To prevent this from happening, other parts of society must make appropriate adjustments if one part of society sees too sudden a change.
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Conflict Theory Viewpoint of social change
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Because the status quo is characterized by social inequality and other problems, sudden social change in the form of protest or revolution is both desirable and necessary to reduce or eliminate social inequality and to address other social ills.
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Equilibrium Model (functionalist view)
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society is always in a natural state of equilibrium, defined as a state of equal balance among opposing forces.
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Sources of Social Change
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Population growth, technology, natural environment, social conflict
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Demography
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the study of changes in the size and composition of population. It encompasses several concepts: fertility and birth rates, mortality and death rates, and migration
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Fertility
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the number of live births. Demographers use several measures of fertility
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Crude Birth Rate
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the number of live births for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year, determined by the number of live births in a year is divided by the population size, and this result is then multiplied by 1,000.
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General Fertility Rate
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the number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44
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Total Fertility Rate
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the number of children an average woman is expected to have in her lifetime.
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Mortality
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the flip side of fertility referring to the number of deaths.
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Crude Death Rate
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the number of deaths for every 1,000 people in a population in a given year, determined by the number of deaths is divided by the population size, and this result is then multiplied by 1,000.
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Migration
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the movement of people into and out of specific regions. Since the dawn of human history, people have migrated in search of a better life, and many have been forced to migrate by ethnic conflict or the slave trade.
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Demographic Transition Theory
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links population growth to the level of technological development across three stages of social evolution.
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3 Stages of Demographic Transition Theory
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1) coinciding with preindustrial societies, the birth rate and death rate are both high; 2) the development of industrial societies, the birth rate remains fairly high, owing to the lack of contraception and a continuing belief in the value of large families, but the death rate drops because of several factors, including increased food production, better sanitation, and improved medicine; 3) the death rate remains low, but the birth rate finally drops as families begin to realize that large numbers of children in an industrial economy are more of a burden than an asset.
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Urbanization
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the rise and growth of cities
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Cosmopolites
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people who live in a city because of its cultural attractions, restaurants, and other features of the best that a city has to offer, including students, writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
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Unmarried and Childless
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individuals and couples are the second type; they live in a city to be near their jobs and to enjoy the various kinds of entertainment found in most cities.
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Ethnic Villagers
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who are recent immigrants and members of various ethnic groups who live among each other in certain neighborhoods.
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Problems of Cities
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1) cities typically have serious difficulties in paying for basic services such as policing, public education, trash removal, street maintenance, and, in cold climates, snow removal, and in providing certain services for their residents who are poor or disabled or who have other conditions. 2) residential crowding: large numbers of people living in a small amount of space. 3) substandard housing characterized by such problems as broken windows, malfunctioning heating systems, peeling paint, and insect infestation. At the same time, adequate housing is not affordable for many city residents, as housing prices in cities can be very high, and the residents’ incomes are typically very low, 4) Gridlock traffic in urban areas, not rural ones, because of the sheer volume of traffic and the sheer number of intersections controlled by traffic lights or stop signs.
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Reform Social Movement
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seeks limited, though still significant, changes in some aspect of a nation’s political, economic, or social systems.
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Revolutionary Social Movement
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seeks to overthrow the existing government and to bring about a new one and even a new way of life.
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Reactionary Social Movement
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tries to block social change or to reverse social changes that have already been achieved. The antiabortion movement is a contemporary example of a reactionary movement
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Relative Deprivation
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the feeling by individuals that they are deprived relative to some other group or to some ideal state they have not reached.
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Structural Strain Theory
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social movements and other collective behavior occur when several conditions are present, especially the problems in society that cause people to be angry and frustrated.
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Precipitating Factors to Strain Theory
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sudden events that ignite collective behavior.
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Generalized Beliefs to Strain Theory
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people’s reasons for why conditions are so bad and their solutions to improve them. If people decide that the conditions they dislike are their own fault, they will decide not to protest.
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Resource Mobilization Theory
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social movement activity is a rational response to unsatisfactory conditions in society. Because these conditions always exist, so does discontent with them.

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