Sociology Book Notes 7

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Peter Moskos wrote what book?
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Cop in the Hood
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What is the point of \”Cop in the Hood\”?
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Moskos describes his beat as seen through the eyes of a sociologist doing an ethnographic study. Looking beyond the stereotypes he found a diverse and vibrant community.
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What has Naomi Wolf known for?
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Terming the beauty myth to refer to an an exaggerated idea of beauty, beyond the reach of all but a few females.
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Is deviance set in stone?
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No, it is subject to social definition within a particular society and at a particular time.
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What interactionist termed \”stigma\” and what does it imply?
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Erving Goffman coined the term stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups.
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Who termed \”spoiled identity\”? and what does it mean?
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Erving Goffman describes how when people do not conform to the beauty myth they acheive that title.
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Where can socially tolerated forms of deviance be found?
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high technology
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Give an example of a socially tolerated form of deviance on the internet.
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Downloading music or movies illegally.
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What is the main challenge to effective social control?
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people often receive competing messages about how to behave.
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What theorist type believes, \”people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive?\”
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Functionalist
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What theorist type believes, \”successful functioning of a society will consistently benefit the powerful and work to the disadvantage of other groups?\”
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Conflict theorists
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What were Stanley Milgram’s two levels of social control?
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Conformity and obedience
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What is the difference between conformity and obedience?
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Conformity is informal and obedience is more formal.
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How do conflict theorists reflect on the Milgram experiment?
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Our obedience to comply is related to the value we put on the person giving orders and the one that is receiving the pain or pleasure.
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How did Gary Schulman reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
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He recreated the experiment and found that Whites were more likely to shock Blacks than whites.
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How do interactionists reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
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They emphasize the effect of incrementally administering additional dosages of volts. The experiment negotiated with the teacher and convinced the teacher to continue inflicting higher levels of punishment.
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How did Jerry Burger reflect on Milgram’s experiment?
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He recreated it in 2009 and found the rate of shocking another had only dropped a little bit.
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How do sociologists see the creation of laws?
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They see it as a response to a perceived need for social control.
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Travis Hiraschi and other control theorists believe what?
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They believed that our bonds to family members and others induce us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.
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How do functionalists see deviance in law and society?
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they see it as a common part of human existence, with postive as well as negative consequences for social stability.
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Functionalist Durkheim’s view on punishments was what?
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Punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to society.
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What did Kai Erikson believe in regard to punishments?
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The illustrated the boundry maintenance function of deviance.
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Merton believed that the one important cultural goal in US is what?
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success measured by money
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What are the 4 types of deviant behavior according to Merton?
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retreatist, innovator, ritualist, and rebel.
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What does the retreatist believe?
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withdrawn from society (off the grid)
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What does the innovator believe?
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accepts the goals of society but persues them in a way that is regarded as improper.
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What does the ritualist believe?
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They have abandoned the goal of material success and have compulsively committed to the institutional means.
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What does the rebel believe?
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feels alienated and tries to create a new social structure .
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What was Merton’s key contribution to the sociological understanding of deviance?
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innovators and ritualists share a great deal with conforming people
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What did Susan A Phillips discover?
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she discovered that the writers learned fro one another.
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What did Edwin Sutherland believe?
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that the same basic socialization process in learning conformity and deviant acts.
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How did labeling theorists believe in regards to deviancy?
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they emphasized hwo a person comes to be labeled as deviant or to accept that label.
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What does the labeling theory believe about the agents of social control?
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Some individuals or groups have the pweor to define labels and apply the to others.
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Conflict theorists Richard Quinney believed what about crime?
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He beleived that criminal justice serves the interest of the powerful. Crime is a definition of conduct created by authorized agents of social cotnrol in a politcally organized way.
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What did Feminists Adler and Chesney-Lind believe about crime?
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They suggested that many of the existing approaches to deviance and crime were developed with only men in mind.
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Wht did interactionists Shaw and McKaw believe about deviance?
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emphasized communal relationships
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What did interactionist Becker and Chambliss beleive in regard to deviance?
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They empahized society response to the acts.
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What two ways do sociologists categorize crime?
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in terms of hwo they are commiteed and how society views the offences
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What did Sutherland offer in regards to crime?
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he ebelived that professional thieves make a business of stealing.
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What did sociologist Bell contribute to organized crime?
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when used the term of ethnic succession.
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What two terms did Sutherland coin in regards to crime?
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white-collar crime and corporate crime
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What are the 8 types of index crimes?
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Murder, Robbery, Burglary, Rape, Assault, Vehicle theft, Arson, Larceny (Mr. Braval)
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What did sociologist Elliot Currie suggest tah our society places greater emphasis on?
answer

our society places reater empahsis on individual economic achievement.

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