Sociology (A Down -to- Earth Approach) 11th edition (Chapter 2)

the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next.

Material Culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.

Nonmaterial Culture
a groups ways of thinking (including its beliefs , values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction), also called symbolic culture.

Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for0granted assumptions about life

the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.

Cultural Relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms.

Symbolic Culture
Another term for nonmaterial culture

something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with one another.

the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another

a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought. Language allows human exp to be cumulative. Language provides a social or shared past. Language provides a social or shared future. language allows shared perspectives

Sapir- Whorf hypothesis
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf’s hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving.

the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

expectations of right behavior

either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them

Positive Sanction
A reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward.

Negative Sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging form a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as or a prison sentence.

norms that are not strictly enforced

norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group,

a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated

the values and related behaviors of group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world

a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture.

Pluralistic Society
a society made up of many different groups.

Core Values
The values that are central of a group, those around which it builds a common identity.

Value cluster
values that together form a large whole. An emerging value cluster is leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, and youthfulness

Value Contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.

Ideal Culture
a people’s ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them

Real Culture
the norms and values that people actually follow; as opposed to ideal culture.

Cultural Universal
A value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be a fundamental cause of human behavior.

in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.

New Tech
the emerging techs of an era that have a significant impact on social life.

Cultural Lag
WIlliam Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.

Cultural Diffusion
The spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and non material.

Cultural Leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations.

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