Sociology: A Brief Intro – Chapter 5 – Social Interaction, Groups and Social Structure

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What are the characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy?
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1) Division of Labor 2) Hierarchy of Authority 3) Written Rules and Regulations 4) Impersonality 5) Employment based on technical qualifications
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Which of the following are examples of social institutions? >1 A) Religion B) Government C) Family D) Fan Club E) Mass Media
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A) Religion, B) Government, C) Family and E) Mass Media
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All social interaction takes place within a social _____, including those interactions that redefine social reality.
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structure
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Symbolic interactionists argue that reality is shaped by our ____, ____, and ____.
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perceptions; evaluations; definitions
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A ____ is a component of a formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
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bureaucracy
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What are the four stages of role exit in the order they occur?
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1) Doubt 2) Search for alternatives 3) Action or Departure 4) Creation of a new identity
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In a society with few social roles and little division of labor and where most people can do many of the same things, people experience: A) gemeinschaft. B) mechanical solidarity. C) organic solidarity. D) gesellschaft.
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B) mechanical solidarity.
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What are the five functions that a social institution must fulfill to survive?
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1) Replace personnel 2) Teaching new recruits 3) Producing and distributing goods and services 4) Preserving order 5) Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
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Groups that play a pivotal role in the socialization process are called:
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primary groups.
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What are the characteristics of the following societal types? A) Hunting-and-Gathering B) Horticultural C) Agrarian D) Industrial E) Postindustrial F) Postmodern
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A) Hunting-and-Gathering = relies on whatever foods and fibers are readily available; technology is minimal. B) Horticultural = plants crops and places more emphasis on the production of tools and household objects. C) Agrarian = engages primarily in the production of food, but new technological innovations such as the plow allow an increase in crop yields D) Industrial = depends of the mechanization to produce goods and services; relies on new inventions and new sources of energy E) Postindustrial = relies primarily on the processing and control of information F) Postmodern = depends on consumer goods and media images
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What is a small group that is characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation called?
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Primary group
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Define the following sociological views: 1) Functionalist view 2) Conflict view 3) Interactionist view
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1) Functionalist view = institutions must fulfill a number of specific duties to survive. 2) Conflict view = institutions exist to serve the needs of the groups in power. 3) Interactionist view = institutions affect our everyday functioning, including the roles we play.
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A person having a difficult time performing all of the duties required by their difficult and demanding job is experiencing role ____.
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strain
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A series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and indirectly to still more people is known as a social ____. A) coalition B) institution C) network D) group
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C) network
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Statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, virtual worlds and social institutions are the six elements of social ____.
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structure
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Sociologist use the term social ____ to describe the ways in which people respond to one another. A) structure B) communication C) integration D) interaction
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D) interaction
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A status that dominates and dermines a person’s general position in society is called a(n) ____ status. A) achieved B) acquired C) master D) ascribed
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C) master
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The health care system, the mass media and the government are all examples of ____ ____.
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social institutions.
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Define the following groups: 1) In-Group 2) Out- Group 3) Reference Group 4) Coalition 5) Social Network
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1) In-Group = any group or category to which people feel they belong. 2) Out- Group = any group or category to which people feel they do not belong. 3) Reference Group = any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. 4) Coalition = a temporary or permanent alliance that is geared toward a common goal. 5) Social Network = a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and, through them, indirectly to still more people.
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The term _____ refers to the unofficial activities and interactions that are a basic party of daily operations within formal organizations. A) Mechanical Solidarity B) Human Relations Approach C) Iron Law of Oligarchy D) Bureaucracy’s Other Face
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D) Bureaucracy’s Other Face
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According to the scientific management approach workers are motivated by, treated as and are managed through what ways?
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Workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards, are treated as a resource (similar to machines), and managers attempt to achieve maximum work efficiency through scientific planning, established performance standards and careful supervision of workers and production. Job satisfaction nor workers’ attitudes are studied.
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Which of the following are downsides of division of labor? >1 A) Makes it difficult to find new hires B) Alienation C) Decreases specialization D) Weakens job security.
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B) Alienation and D) Weakens job security.
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In this type of community there is little agreement about values, and social control relies on more formal means such as laws and policies. A) Mechanical B) Gesellscaft C) Organic D) Gemeinschaft
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B) Gesellscaft
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A group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior is called a(n) _____.
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reference group
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Define the following: 1) Gemeinschaft 2) Gesellschaft
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1) Gemeinschaft = rural life in which people have similar backgrounds; limited social change. 2) Gesellschaft = urban life in which people do not have similar backgrounds; social change is evident.
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Social reality is constructed from: >1 A) a particular group’s power within a society. B) social interaction. C) the ability of the subordinate group to define the society’s values. D) the ability of the dominant group to define the society’s values.
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A) a particular group’s power within a society. B) social interaction. and D) the ability of the dominant group to define the society’s values.
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Feeling estranged or dissociated from the surrounding society is called ____.
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alienation
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Effie had a solid education, a great attitude, and an eagerness to learn. As a result she was steadily promoted to more responsible positions. After two years Effie was promoted to a director position, but she discovered she did not have the qualifications or skills the position required. Effie was a victim of what principle?
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The Peter principle. According to this principle, every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to their level of incompetence. This relects a possible dysfunctional outcome of advancement on the basis of merit.
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The sociologist Robert Michels argued that the rank and file of a movement or organization look to leaders for directions and such reinforce the process of rule by a few. He referred to this idea as _____ A) The Iron Law of Oligarchy B) Impersonality. C) McDonalization. D) Bureaucratization.
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A) The Iron Law of Oligarchy
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According to the sociologist Herbert Blumer, the distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that \”human beings interpret or ‘define’ each other’s actions instead of merely reacting to each other’s actions.\” In other words, our response to other people’s behavior is based on the ____ we attach to their actions.
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meaning
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Your boss is a staunch follower of the rules, which were written decades ago and no longer apply in an era of modern technology. Your boss suffers from
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goal displacement.
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According to Emile Durkheim, organic solidarity exists when societies become A) Less advanced technologically and less interdependent on each person’s expertise. B) More advanced technologically and more interdependent on each person’s expertise. C) More urbanized an less interdependent on each person’s expertise. D) Less specialized and every person can perform the same task.
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B) More advanced technologically and more interdependent on each person’s expertise.
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The process by which the principles of bureaucratization, namely predictability, efficiency, and dependence on non-human technology, are coming to dominate more sectors of U.S. and global society is called ____ A) Fordism B) Goal Displacement C) McDonalization D) Hierarchy of Authority
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McDonalization
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When a bureaucracy establishes a hierarchy of authority, which of the following can occur? >1 A) Employees do not have a voice in decision making. B) Employees know who is in command. C) Employees have a voice in the decision making. D) Mistakes are hidden.
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A) Employees do not have a voice in decision making. B) Employees know who is in command. and D) Mistakes are hidden.
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In a(n) ___ society, statuses and social roles are in a constant state of flux. All members are dependent on each other for survival because the division of labor has become so complex. A) technical B) mechanical C) organized D) organic
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D) organic
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What are the consequences of the following characteristics of a bureaucracy? 1) Division of Labor 2) Hierarchy of Authority 3) Written Rules and Regulations 4) Impersonality 5) Employment based on qualifications.
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1) Division of Labor = produces efficiency in a large scale corporation 2) Hierarchy of Authority = clarifies who is in command 3) Written Rules and Regulations = workers know expectations 4) Impersonality = encourages equal treatment of everybody 5) Employment based on qualifications = protect against arbitrary dismissal
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Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic social needs, such as replacing personnel or preserving order, are called A) social institutions. B) social norms. C) social coalitions D) social groups.
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A) social institutions.

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