Sociology 151 Chapter 1

Sociology
The scientific study of societies and human social behavior.

Human behavior
The basic premise of sociology is that __ is largely determined by the groups to which people belong and by the societies in which they live.

Lens
Sociology is a __ at which we view the world. It is also a sociological imangination to see the world.

Sociological perspective
Emphasizes the powerful role that group membership and social forces play in shaping behavior. It also concentrates on human groups and their multiple influences on human behavior.

Social interaction, Social relationships
Sociologist focus on __ & __ rather than on individuals.

Perspective
A point of view or a distinctive way of viewing something.

Beliefs, values, and behaviors
A key insight of the sociological perspective is that __, __, & __ are relative to particular groups of societies and can be understood only in the context of those affiliations.

Globalization
Trends toward increasing interconnectedness bewteen different peoples around the world and the growing unification of social and cultural life.

Group members, social interaction, and social relationships
__, __, & __ are at the center of sociologists’ attention.

Introspection and insight
The sociological perspective offers a special awareness of the world that enables people to approach their own lives with __ & __.

Sociological Imagination
The ability to understand the relationship between what is happening in people’s personal lives and the social forces that surround them.

Science
A method of obtaining objective and systematic knowledge through observations.

Social sciences
The disciplines that use the scientific method to study human behavior, groups, and society.

Theories and reasearch
The practice of sociology involves two key elements: __ & __.

Theories
Embody the sociological perspective.

Reasearch
Based on the scientific method.

Theoretical perspective
Provides some fundamental assumptions about the nature and operation of society and commonly serve as sources of the more specific theories.

Functionalism, conflict theory, interactionism
Most sociologists today are guided by one or more of the following theoretical perspectives: __, __, & __.

Macrosociology and microsociology
Functionalist and conflict approaches are frequently referred to as: __ & __.

Macrosociology
Focus on large groups, social institutions, and society as a whole.

Microsociology
Concentrates on the intimate level of everyday interactions between people.

Functionalist perspective
Society is a system made up of a number of interrelated and interdependent elements, each performing a function that contributes to the operation of the whole.

Family, education, economy
The elements of sociology include __, __, & __.

Family
Provides for the bearing and rearing of children untill they can live on their own.

Educational insitutions
Provides training in the various skills needed to fill jobs in society.

Economy
Responsibly for producing food, clothing, and other necessities needed by families to survive as well as providing the books and other supplies needed for education.

Social roles, social groups, and subcultures
In addition to institutions, society is also made up of __, __, & _, and all these parts fit together into a reasonably well integrated whole.

Conflict perspective
Based on the idea that society consists of different groups who struggle with one another to attain the scare societal resources that are considered valuable. It may be the money, power, prestige, or the authority to impose one’s values on society.

Karl Marx
Provided the foundation for the conflict perspectve.

Interactionist perspective
Focuses on everyday social interaction among individuals rather than on large societal structures such as politics and education.

Definition of the situation
Refers to people’s perceptions and interpretations of what is important in a situation and what actions are possible or appropriate.

Reasearch methods
A detailed plan made by sociologists that specifies how observations will be made in order to test the hypotheses.

Observational techniques, surveys, and experiments
The three methods most commonly used by sociologists.

Observational techniques
The direct observation of behavior by sociologists, either by seeing or hearing what people do.

Surveys
The collection of data by asking people questions about their behavior or attitudes.

Experiments
A controlled method of observation in which independent variables are maniplulated in order to assess their effects on a dependent variable.

Problem formulation, design development, data collection, data analysis, drawing conclusions, public dissemination of findings
Six common steps in conducting research.

Reactivity
The fact that people react to being studied and may behave differently from the way they do when they don’t think they are being studied.

Ethics
The proper or improper behavior with moral duty and obligation.

Auguste Comte
Considered to be the father of sociology because he was the first person to use the term “sociology”

Basic and applied sociology
Two types of sociology.

Basic (pure) sociology
Sociological research whose purpose is to advance our knowledge about human social behavior with little concern for any immediate practical benefits that might result.

Applied sociology
Research and other activities designed to focus sociological knowledge or research toolds on a particular problem identified by some client with some practical outcome in mind.