Sociology 101 Midterm Essay

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Chapter 1 The fundamental principle or lesson of sociology is that
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the social context shapes what people do and think
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Chapter 1 Sociologists believe that persistent problems in the U.S. are
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embedded in society
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Chapter 1 In Durkheim’s view of society, people come to believe what society expects them to believe because
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they internalize the existence of society in their minds.
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Chapter 1 According to Marx, the beliefs of the common people tend to support the interests of the capitalist system, not the workers themselves. This is because
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the capitalist class control the production of ideas
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Chapter 1 Applying the _____means that one has the ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life
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sociological perspective
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Chapter 1 A fundamental concept for using one’s sociological imagination is the distinction that Mills made between
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troubles and issues
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Chapter 1 Which of the following was not a condition that led to the development of sociology?
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the increasingly important role of religion
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Chapter 1 According to the text, a significant difference between the early American sociologists and their European counterparts was that the American sociologists were more _____.
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practical
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Chapter 1 The type of applied sociological thinking that focused on how society shaped the mind and identity of people was called _____.
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the Chicago School
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Chapter 1 Sociology is a/n _____ discipline, meaning the conclusions are based on systematic observations.
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empirical
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Chapter 2 How does language influence patterns of social inequality?
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Language may produce inequalities through stereotypes and assumptions that may be built into what people say.
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Chapter 2 Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
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table manners
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Chapter 2 People generally follow norms for behavior because
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they have learned and internalized the common expectations for behavior.
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Chapter 2 The strength or seriousness of social sanctions is (negative punishment)
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generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
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Chapter 2 The theoretical perspective that examines how culture creates group identity from diverse cultural meanings is _____.
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symbolic interaction
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Chapter 2 The complex system that includes a group’s beliefs, values, dress, and way of life, is called
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culture
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Chapter 2 Why are norms such an important element of culture?
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Without norms society would be chaotic.
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Chapter 2 The invention of subways and trains illustrates which cause of social change?
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innovation
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Chapter 2 In every society, the dominant culture is
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the culture of the most powerful group.
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Chapter 2 Puerto Ricans in New York and the Amish are examples of __________.
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subculture
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Chapter 3 Compared to survey research, participant observation creates a greater risk that
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the researcher may be subjective in their interpretations.
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Chapter 3 A study of how women are depicted in advertisements is an example of what method?
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content analysis
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Chapter 3 Asking your roommates to answer a survey you designed for your sociology class is problematic because:
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they are not randomly selected.
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Chapter 3 To study the difference in academic achievement between male and female athletes, one might look at rates of graduation among university students involved in sports. This is an example of _____ research.
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quantitative
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Chapter 3 Which of the following is not a step in the scientific research process?
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finding funding for the research
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Chapter 3 You eat everyday in the same cafeteria on campus and notice that everyone seems to sit with the same group of people whenever they come to eat. You notice that people seem to be sitting with others who share traits such as race or gender, and you decide to explore if this is the case. What kind of reasoning does this involve?
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inductive reasoning
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Chapter 3 Qualitative research is based on
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interpretive observations
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Chapter 3 A student’s grades are not an accurate reflection of the student’s intelligence. Therefore a student’s grades lack _____ in a study of intelligence.
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validity
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Chapter 3 If the research conclusions may be generalized to a broader population, what does that mean?
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The findings from the sample can be applied to the population.
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Chapter 3 A student is given the same survey three times, each time sitting alone in a room. The student’s results on the survey are different each time. This is an indication that the survey
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is not reliable.
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Chapter 4 Molly wants to be a nurse. During college she volunteers at the local hospital. This is an example of:
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anticipatory socialization.
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Chapter 4 Social scientists and others debate whether humanness is naturally occurring or socially created. This is called the ______ debate.
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nature – nurture
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Chapter 4 _____ are the expected behaviors associated with a given status in society.
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Roles
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Chapter 4 Which of the following is not evidence that socialization serves as a form of social control?
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Social control eliminates individuality.
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Chapter 4 Sociologists believe that socialization
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is not uniform; no two people have exactly the same experience.
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Chapter 4 Albert likes to play catch with his brother, but he cannot understand the complete game of baseball. Albert is likely in which of Mead’s stages?
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play
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Chapter 4 According to Charles Horton Cooley, the self is formed as we
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respond to the expectations that others have of us.
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Chapter 4 Although the process of socialization promotes conformity, individual are also shaped by resistance to conformity and to oppression. This is an argument of _____.
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conflict theory
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Chapter 4 According to _____, society maintains its stability through socialization.
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functionalism
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Chapter 4 Through the process of socialization we do all of the following, except
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experience diversity
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Chapter 5 Functionalist theorists contend that social institutions
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assure the stability and continuance of society.
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Chapter 5 Which of the following is likely not an example of one’s master status?
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height
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Chapter 5 A medical doctor and a judge are examples of _____.
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achieved statuses
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Chapter 5 Students are expected to spend a lot of time on their studies, but students are also increasingly expected to perform some sort of volunteer work and to socialize in their residence halls. The result is
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role strain.
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Chapter 5 Which of the following is not a social institution?
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Religion Family **Friends** Education
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Chapter 5 From the perspective of conflict theorists, social institutions
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provide for some members of society more than for others.
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Chapter 5 The type of social solidarity that exists in the United States and other industrialized societies is _____ solidarity.
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organic
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Chapter 5 Using impression management, individuals
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present different “selves” to others, depending on the situation.
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Chapter 5 Which of these would interest a sociologist who prefers macroanalysis of social interaction?
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how laws governing family leave have affected families in the U.S.
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Chapter 6 AARP and the NAACP are examples of _____ organizations.
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normative
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Chapter 6 What was the outcome of the classic prison simulation done by Zimbardo and his associates?
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Without being told to do so, students playing the role of guards behaved sadistically toward the students in the role of prisoners.
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Chapter 5 A student who admires her basketball coach and plans to become a coach herself is an example of _____.
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role modeling
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Chapter 6 _____ are small and intimate; _____ are larger and short-lived.
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Primary groups; secondary groups
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Chapter 6 As _____, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
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groups become larger.
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Chapter 6 Which perspective is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and alienation as a result of being subordinated within a formal organization?
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conflict theory
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Chapter 6 Considering oneself as part of “people like us” is an example of being part of _____.
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an in-group
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Chapter 6 Individuals often join _____ organizations for monetary reasons.
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utilitarian
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Chapter 6 By definition, groups must be at least _____ people.
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2
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Chapter 6 According to Ouchi’s theory of organizations, increased interaction between superiors and subordinates on a primary group basis reduces organizational dysfunctions. This is a type of _____.
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symbolic interaction theory
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Chapter 6 Which of the following does not illustrate a common type of attribution error?
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All of these are illustrations of attribution error.
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Chapter 7 A high school student acts bored in class and the teacher decides she is a bad student. This teacher discusses the student with other teachers who then treat that student as if she were a bad student. This describes the process of _____.
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labeling
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Chapter 7 If a sociologist considered tattoos a form of deviance, they would categorize it as a type of ______ deviance.
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informal
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Chapter 7 Differential association theory explains deviance by
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Chapter 7 A soldier who kills in battle is not considered deviant, but a murderer is. This illustrates the point that
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whether or not behavior is considered deviant depends on the context.
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Chapter 7 The Ku Klux Klan and Neo-Nazis are both examples of which type of structural strain?
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rebellion
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Chapter 7 Anomie, as defined by Durkheim, is frequently referred to as a state of
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relative normlessness caused by the breakdown of social influences.
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Chapter 7 The sociological definition of social deviance
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stresses social context, not individual behavior.
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Chapter 7 According to Durkheim, why do societies actually need deviance?
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in order to recognize normal behavior
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Chapter 7 When labeling theory and conflict theory are linked they explain
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why members of oppressed groups are more likely to be incarcerated or institutionalized.
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Chapter 7 The recommended solution for alcoholism usually includes some type of treatment and possibly hospitalization. In contrast, the use of crack cocaine is legally punished. The difference may be explained by the fact that alcoholism has been ______ and crack cocaine use has not.
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medicalized

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