– Individuals are socially determined
– Individuals create, sustain, and change social forms within which they conduct their lives.
economy: production and distribution of goods and services, ownership, division of labor
religion: source of meaning and values
marriage and family: socialization, identity, procreation, sexuality
education: socialization, knowledge and skills
other: mass media, law/police, military, health care
The experiment that demonstrated the power in roles is the Zimbardo mock prison at Stanford university. He studied the impact of prison life on guards and prisoners. People were chosen to take part in the experiment and were assigned a duty/ role to partake in. In just a few days, the students who were playing the role of guards and prisoners actually became the guards and inmates in a few days. believed it was their true role.
Nonmaterial: language, values.
Material: the physical objects created by a culture – the buildings, tools.
Conflict theory and socialization: The view of society is based on conflict and competition. Conflict is normal feature and influences distribution of power
Order theory (Functionalism) and socialization:
The view of society – social systems in integrated parts Social integration: High
sharing of culture/values, unity among the member.
Class: social organization based on economic rank, social mobility, hierarchy.
Conventional wisdoms: equal opportunity, america is the greatest nation, we value human life.
– The affluent and powerful benefit from poverty.
Capitalism: The economic system based on private ownership of property, guided by the pursuit of maximum profits (greed).
Socialism: the economic system in which the means of production are owned by the people for their collective benefit. Public ownership of means of production for their collective benefit.
concentration of ownership: less companies in control of economy.. shifted to the corporations
shared monopolies: when 4 or fewer firms supply 50% or more of a particular market
interlocking directorates: the linkage between corporations that result when an individual serves on the board of directors of two companies ( direct interlock) or when two companies each have a director on the board of a third company (an indirect
interlock) “persons” within meaning of the law
legal obligation to maximize profit…don’t care about consumers.
“Wealthfare’ or socialism for the rich: tax breaks : work opportunity tax credit, subsidies, direct money, research and development( this goes towards the university colleges), low or no interest loans, bailouts ( large companies are bailed out by government when they are in trouble) .
reduces number of jobs. Increases corporate debt (ex: US corps spend half of earnings on interest payments.) Nonproductive (ex: no new plants products or jobs, rather creates profits for lawyers, accountants, brokers and big investors.
2. acquisitions: companies buying smaller companies
3. failure to enforce laws: fraud, Sherman Anti-trust Law
4. lack of regulation
Power over Workers: downsizing, offshoring, outsourcing (eliminating jobs and getting a temporary agency), automation (replacing workers with machines to save money).
Power over communities: Race to bottom
Power over political system: attacks on organized labor: Only 7-8% unionized.
Crisis and Consequences: National government lost a great deal of tax revenues, causing them to face serious shortfalls. Reducing jobs –> unemployment increase. The American Dream stayed a dream.