Sociological Approaches To Health And Ill Health
In this assignment I will look at the different sociological positions on wellness and ill wellness every bit good as the different definitions of it.
Specifying wellness is truly hard as there are many different positions. There have been many unfavorable judgments of the shaping of wellness. The definition of wellness has changed over the old ages. For illustration
In Mauritania ; a little state in N.W. Africa, fleshiness is considered a mark of beauty. Girls are ‘force-fed ‘ so that they grow up with that fleshiness expression.
In the western state fleshiness is seen as sick wellness, unattractive and associated with negative stereotypes.
Fleshiness is still seen as a mark of wealth and wellbeing in many parts of Africa.
The functionalist attack on wellness and ill wellness derives from Talcott Pearson. Talcott saw sick wellness as a menace to society and believed that good wellness was indispensable in order for society to be still working. He said that sick wellness affects our ability to work and execute our functions in society. For that ground he said that for a individual to be considered ill there are several outlook to be met. He called the outlooks the ‘sick function ‘ which indicated how people are supposed to be like when they are sick and how they should be believing. The ill function divides into two groups ; the rights and the duties.
The ill individual is free from any societal functions. For illustration work, or school, they should be allowed to take the twenty-four hours off in order to acquire back to normal
The ill individual is non responsible for their status
The individual should seek for medical aid. For illustration traveling to the physicians to acquire checked up and acquire intervention
The individual should non like being ill. For illustration the individual should non forge being ill merely because they get attending every bit good as acquiring a twenty-four hours off their normal responsibilities.
However the ill function blowbacks sometimes as people tend to lose forbearance with the ill individual or deny that they are ill for grounds such as wishing the function. For illustration household, they may demo understanding at the beginning but after a piece they lose forbearance with the ill individual and presume he/she is seeking attending or is a hypochondriac.
Marxist & A ; Feminist Approach
Marxist attack believes that the wellness and societal attention service attention services are provided merely to assist the middle classs gain net income. The Marxist believe that the wellness and societal attention of the service users should be maintained in order for them to rapidly acquire back to work so that they can do net income for the middle classs. In order to keep the societal hierarchy the authorities intentionally ignores the merchandising of merchandises which can harm one ‘s organic structure for illustration, coffin nails, baccy etc. In the modern universe I believe the hierarchy is shaped into a pyramid with a few elite at the top controlling and pull stringsing those below which allows the rich to ever be the rich and the hapless to be the hapless giving no opportunity for motion in the hierarchy.
Feminist authors believe that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industries have given a low precedence to developing male preventive pills which have fewer harmful side effects compared to preventives used by adult females. This shows that society is working adult females and increase anxiousness and emphasis for adult females at that place by stamp downing their abilities and doing life outside of household harder so that adult females resume their place as a homemaker. For illustration a adult females sing depression or sickness at her workplace will execute severely hence in comparing to males who are executing better and acquiring better consequence she will look inferior.This clearly shows how society and its medicines are intentionally full of side effects to marginalize adult females, so that the males will be more dominant.
While Marxist and Socialist Feminist argue that adult females are non having the same medicines as males. Womans have two functions, besides known as ‘double twenty-four hours ‘ which signifies two functions adult females have to set about. First of wholly as a homemaker, taking attention of her domestic responsibilities, and the other as a worker/employer. Sociologist Doyal suggests that it is the fact that adult females have two functions in society, that they acquiring ill. Personally I believe it is due to the medicine we receive as adult females, which could otherwise be given to work forces with far less side effects. It is the due to the deficiency of consideration and its demand for male laterality that adult females are ill.
Even now in this modern twenty-four hours the definition of wellness is non clear. There are two opposing theories one being that wellness means the ‘absence of disease ‘ the other being ‘not merely an absence of disease but besides a province of physical, mental, religious and societal wellbeing ‘ . The negative construct is the ‘absence of disease ‘ which would intend that the individual needs to be diagnose with a disease in order to be unhealthy. However the positive definition which is provided by the ‘World Health Organization ( WHO ) ‘in 1974 ; non simply an absence of disease but besides a province of physical, mental, religious and societal wellbeing ‘ means that you do n’t hold to be diagnosed with a disease you could be mentally sick, physically, spiritually, socially, emotionally, or intellectually. So hence the wellness and societal attention sectors normally take a holistic appraisal in order to turn to the demands of the ‘whole ‘ individual instead than individual issues. ( Btec level 3 wellness and societal attention book 3 ) .
Sociologist Mildred Blaxter carried a big study and so identified three definitions to wellness and wellbeing ;
One positive definition ; ‘regarding wellness as being tantrum ‘
Two being a negative definition ; ‘Regarding wellness as being free from hurting or uncomfortableness
And in conclusion a functional definition ; ‘regarding wellness in footings of being able to execute certain, daily undertakings
Concepts of ailment wellness
One construct of wellness is Clinical Iceberg this is a term used to depict unreported unwellness. The statistics produced by the authorities and the physicians have a 94 % off unreported unwellness losing from the statistics. For illustration Lyme Disease is one of the highest unreported unwellnesss that is unreported. “ A study last month for the Everyman Male Cancer Campaign suggested that about twice as many work forces as adult females had non visited their GP in the past twelvemonth. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8154200.stm last accessed 22/10/12 18:02 ) & A ; ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.anh-usa.org/lymedisease/ last accessed 27/12/12 ) So hence this could be one of the ground why there are so many unreported unwellness because work forces do necessitate see a physician because the attempt and populate up to the expression of ‘men do n’t shout and they are tough ‘ so this leads them to believe that if they do travel to the physicians that they are weak.
Damage is the limitations to our daily activities caused by physical or mental disfunctions for illustration Down syndrome ; a acquisition difficultly.
Disability is seen by Tom Shakespeare as limitations that arise for a individual with damages because society does non take into history the demands of people with damage for illustration person in a wheel chair non holding inclines in edifices or person deaf non holding hearing AIDSs available. However some people may mention this to ‘disabling environment ‘ which suggests an environment where installations for the damages are non available for people to take full portion in societal life.