SOCIO MODULE 4

A sharp increase in global population began about the time of
a. the Agricultural Revolution.
b. the Industrial Revolution.
c. World War I.
d. the Information Revolution.
b. the Industrial Revolution.

Global population reached 1 billion about the year
a. 1950.
b. 1900.
c. 1850.
d. 1800.
d. 1800.

In 2013, the human population of the planet was
a. 20 billion.
b. 14.2 billion.
c. 7.2 billion.
d. 10 billion.
c. 7.2 billion.

Over the course of the twentieth century, global population
a. stayed about the same.
b. doubled.
c. tripled.
d. quadrupled.
d. quadrupled.

The United Nations projects that global population in the year 2050 will be
a. 9.6 billion.
b. 11 billion.
c. 13.6 billion.
d. greater than 15 billion.
a. 9.6 billion.

Which term refers to the study of human population?
a. demography
b. popology
c. human ecology
d. ethnology
a. demography

Which term refers to the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population?
a. fecundity
b. fertility
c. reproduction
d. demography
b. fertility

What is calculated by dividing the number of live births in a year by the society’s total population, and then multiplying the result by 1,000?
a. refined fertility rate
b. crude birth rate
c. population-growth rate
d. childbearing rate
b. crude birth rate

Which term refers to the incidence of death in a country’s population?
a. mortality
b. morbidity
c. the crude death rate
d. the infant mortality rate
a. mortality

For any country, as the number of women with access to contraception goes up, a woman’s average number of children
a. stays the same.
b. goes up.
c. goes down.
d. cannot be predicted.
c. goes down.

Which rate results from dividing the number of deaths of children under one year of age by the number of live births during the same year, then multiplying the result by 1,000?
a. infant mortality rate
b. crude infant death rate
c. crib death rate
d. abortion rate
a. infant mortality rate

Subtracting a nation’s crude death rate from its crude birth rate yields what?
a. rate of natural expansion
b. national expansion index
c. natural growth rate
d. refined demographic index
c. natural growth rate

High-income nations such as the United States grow
a. as much from immigration as from natural increase.
b. almost entirely from immigration.
c. almost entirely from natural increase.
d. by means of demographic transition.
a. as much from immigration as from natural increase.

Which term refers to the level of reproduction that maintains population at a steady state?
a. inert fertility
b. zero fertility rate
c. zero population growth
d. demographic balance
c. zero population growth

There are many reasons that population increase has slowed in high-income nations. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. increased mortality rates
b. more families have both partners in the labor force
c. a trend toward later marriage
d. more widespread use of contraceptives
a. increased mortality rates

Worldwide, what share of global population increase is taking place in the low-income nations of the Southern Hemisphere?
a. none
b. less than half
c. slightly more than half
d. almost all
d. almost all

. Dr. Nafis Sadik, who heads the United Nations’ efforts at population control, explains: “Give a woman more choices about how to live and she will
a. choose marriage.”
b. stay single.”
c. have fewer children.”
d. have more children.”
c. . have fewer children.”

Who was the English economist, clergyman, and pioneer demographer who predicted in 1798 that population would increase geometrically, but food production would increase arithmetically?
a. Herbert Spencer
b. Charles Horton Cooley
c. Thomas Robert Malthus
d. Robert Michels
c. Thomas Robert Malthus

The series of numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and so on reflect
a. a geometric progression.
b. an arithmetic progression.
c. a binary sequence.
d. a binomial distribution.
a. a geometric progression.

Malthus predicted that food production would increase
a. arithmetically.
b. geometrically.
c. little if at all.
d. to produce more than humanity could consume.
a. arithmetically.

Demographic transition theory links demographic changes to a society’s
a. level of schooling.
b. level of social inequality.
c. level of technological development.
d. cultural patterns.
c. level of technological development.

In which one of the four demographic transition theory stages is the United States?
a. preindustrial
b. early industrial
c. mature industrial
d. postindustrial
d. postindustrial

During Stage 1 (preindustrial, agrarian societies) of the demographic transition, birth rates are __________ and death rates are __________.
a. high/high
b. high/low
c. low /high
d. low /low
a. high/high

During Stage 4 (a postindustrial economy) of the demographic transition,
a. birth rates are very low, but death rates increase.
b. the birth rate falls into line with the death rate, and population growth slows down.
c. birth rates remain very high, and the death rate declines even further.
d. birth and the death rates are both low, so there is little or no natural increase in population.
d. birth and the death rates are both low, so there is little or no natural increase in population.

The poorest 20 percent of the world’s population earns what share of the world’s income?
a. 46 percent
b. 26 percent
c. 12.6 percent
d. 1.6 percent
d. 1.6 percent

In 2013, the world’s three richest people, each with at least $50 billion in wealth, have the same wealth as all the people in
a. the world’s poorest country.
b. the world’s two poorest countries.
c. the world’s 25 poorest countries.
d. 110 of the world’s 195 countries.
d. 110 of the world’s 195 countries.

Of the 195 nations in the world, how many are considered high-income?
a. 75
b. 42
c. 22
d. 12
a. 75

High-income nations are home to what percentage of the earth’s population?
a. 3 percent
b. 23 percent
c. 43 percent
d. 63 percent
b. 23 percent

People living in middle-income countries have incomes ranging between
a. $2,500 to $12,000.
b. $5,000 to $15,000.
c. $15,000 to $25,000.
d. $25,000 to $50,000.
a. $2,500 to $12,000.

How many nations fall within the category of “low-income countries?”
a. 9
b. 19
c. 29
d. 49
d. 49

In 2013, about 17 percent of the global population lived in low-income nations, but these people earned just ________ of the world’s income.
a. 3 percent
b. 13 percent
c. 23 percent
d. 43 percent
a. 3 percent

Most of the low-income nations of the world are located in
a. North America.
b. Latin America.
c. Africa or Asia.
d. Europe.
c. Africa or Asia.

. What term refers to a lack of resources that most other people take for granted?
a. absolute poverty
b. temporary poverty
c. relative poverty
d. immediate poverty
c. relative poverty

In the United States, a home that lacks a telephone or a television set is the rare exception. Not being able to afford a television set in a wealthy country illustrates
a. immediate poverty.
b. temporary poverty.
c. absolute poverty.
d. relative poverty.
d. relative poverty.

A life-threatening lack of resources is called
a. relative poverty.
b. absolute poverty.
c. temporary poverty.
d. immediate poverty.
b. absolute poverty.

Some severe poverty exists in the United States; but in low-income nations, what the United Nations calls severe poverty may affect
a. 5 percent of all people.
b. 15 percent of all people.
c. 40 percent of all people.
d. the entire population.
c. 40 percent of all people.

Which region of the world faces the greatest problem of poor, homeless children?
a. Latin America
b. Europe
c. India
d. the Middle East
a. Latin America

According to the International Labour Organization, the number of people in the world living in conditions that amount to slavery is estimated to be about
a. 20,000.
b. 2 million.
c. 20 million.
d. 2 billion.
c. 20 million.

A factory owner enslaves workers of all ages by paying them too little to cover their debts; this practice illustrates the concept of
a. servile forms of marriage.
b. child slavery.
c. debt bondage.
d. chattel slavery.
c. debt bondage.

In India, Thailand, and some African nations, families marry off women against their will, with many ending up as slaves performing work for their husband’s family or forced into prostitution. This practice falls into which of the following categories?
a. servile forms of marriage
b. indentured slavery
c. chattel slavery
d. debt bondage
a. servile forms of marriage

Which of the following theories is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between societies?
a. social-conflict theory
b. modernization theory
c. world-system theory
d. cultural-transmission theory
b. modernization theory

The first stage in W.W. Rostow’s theory of modernization is
a. the take-off stage.
b. the drive to technological maturity stage.
c. the traditional stage.
d. the high mass consumption stage.
c. the traditional stage.

Critics of modernization theory
a. see the approach as an attack on capitalism.
b. claim that using developed countries as the standard for the rest of the world is helpful for less-developed countries’ growth.
c. point out that the approach says little about the ways in which rich nations often prevent poor countries from developing.
d. agree that poor societies are responsible for their own poverty.
c. point out that the approach says little about the ways in which rich nations often prevent poor countries from developing.

Which theory is a model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich societies?
a. modernization theory
b. world system theory
c. neocolonial theory
d. structural-functional theory
b. world system theory

Which term refers to the process by which some nations enrich themselves through the direct political and economic control of other nations?
a. modernization
b. neocolonialism
c. colonialism
d. assimilation
c. colonialism

According to world system theory, high-income nations occupy which part of the capitalist world economy?
a. the core
b. the periphery
c. the semi-periphery
d. the boundary
a. the core

According to Immanuel Wallerstein, the world economy not only exploits poor nations, it also places them in what position with respect to rich nations?
a. a position of dependency
b. a position of dominance
c. a position of relative affluence
d. a position of cooperation
a. a position of dependency

If you were a conservative, you would most likely see the solution to global poverty in terms of the productive power of
a. government.
b. the market.
c. tradition.
d. global cooperation.
b. the market.

Which political point of view accepts the fact that the capitalist market system is highly productive, but rejects the position that the capitalist market by itself is the solution to global poverty?
a. liberal
b. conservative
c. radical left
d. radical right
a. liberal

Frank and Joe are hunger activists who point out that the world already produces plenty of food for everyone, and that the capitalist system of growing food for export in poor countries means there are too few staples like beans and corn for the poor to eat. Frank and Joe most likely agree with which political viewpoint?
a. conservative
b. radical right
c. liberal
d. radical left
d. radical left

Sociology’s most important contribution to our understanding of environmental issues is
a. showing that we need to modify the natural environment so it can always support many kinds of societies.
b. declaring that the world will inevitably perish due to environmental problems.
c. demonstrating that social issues affect the natural environment.
d. knowing that human technology makes us the superior species in our world.
c. demonstrating that social issues affect the natural environment.

Which of the following terms refers to the study of how living organisms interact with the natural environment?
a. sociobiology
b. ethnology
c. technology
d. ecology
d. ecology

Which term refers to the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, including air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain living organisms.
a. technology
b. ecology
c. natural environment
d. ethnology
c. natural environment

Knowledge that people apply to the task of living in a physical environment is
a. ecology.
b. technology.
c. ethnology.
d. anthropology
b. technology.

Which of the following is composed of interactions of all living organisms and their natural environment?
a. the ecosystem
b. the social environment
c. the sociobiological system
d. the ethnosystem
a. the ecosystem

Which of the following had the largest impact on humanity’s ability to modify the natural environment?
a. the Agricultural Revolution
b. the Information Revolution
c. the invention of hand tools
d. the Industrial Revolution
d. the Industrial Revolution

By 2014, the planet’s population had passed
a. 2.1 billion people.
b. 4.1 billion people.
c. 7.1 billion people.
d. 10.1 billion people.
c. 7.1 billion people.

Which of the following terms refers to serious, long-term harm to the environment caused by humanity’s focus on short-term material affluence?
a. the ecological gap
b. the environmental deficit
c. the Malthusian horror
d. the pollution revolution
b. the environmental deficit

The classic riddle involving the growth of a water lily on a pond illustrates that
a. by the time people finally see a problem, it may be too late to do anything about it.
b. an environment’s capacity is usually greater than it appears on the surface.
c. problems always double in intensity.
d. anything that is growing will become unmanageable.
a. by the time people finally see a problem, it may be too late to do anything about it.

Each year, how many people are added to the planet’s population?
a. 87,000
b. 870,000
c. 8.7 million
d. 87 million
d. 87 million

The outlook environmentalists call the “logic of growth” follows from the fact that our way of life in the United States is based on
a. the value of leisure and a belief in fate.
b. a quest for material comfort and a belief in progress.
c. preservation of the natural environment and a quest for harmony.
d. living simply and planning for the future.
b. a quest for material comfort and a belief in progress.

George is an optimist and a conservative. He agrees with the concept of the logic of growth approach, which
a. recognizes that natural resources such as oil, clean air, fresh water, and topsoil are limited.
b. claims that human ingenuity will probably solve any problems of scarcity.
c. recognizes that economic growth must have limits.
d. asserts that we cannot expect Earth to support more and more people with higher living standards without harming the environment and ourselves.
b. claims that human ingenuity will probably solve any problems of scarcity.

Which thesis states that humanity must constrain the growth of population and our use of finite resources to avoid eventual environmental collapse?
a. logic of growth
b. limits to growth
c. material comfort
d. disposable society
b. limits to growth

According to the limits-to-growth thesis, global supplies of oil and natural gas are already falling sharply and will continue to drop, a little faster or more slowly depending on
a. the logic of modernization.
b. zero-population growth efforts in western Europe.
c. the efficacy of EPA regulations in developing nations.
d. the speed at which developing nations industrialize

Environmentalists who advance the limits to growth thesis are sometimes called
a. Marxist anthropologists.
b. neo-Malthusians.
c. demographic transitionists.
d. pro-growth economists.
b. neo-Malthusians.

The United States as a whole generates how many pounds of solid waste every day?
a. 5,000
b. 50,000
c. 5 million
d. 5 billion
d. 5 billion

The title of Rachel Carson’s book about growing environmental problems due to the widespread use of chemicals was
a. On Walden Pond.
b. Silent Spring.
c. Unsafe at Any Speed.
d. The Power Elite.
b. Silent Spring.

A U.S. cultural pattern that contributes to a high level of solid waste is
a. that most people commute to work over long distances.
b. our widespread use of computer technology.
c. that we are a “disposable society” that values convenience.
d. our national fascination with recycling.
c. that we are a “disposable society” that values convenience.

Environmentalists argue that we should address the problem of solid waste by turning it into a resource, which is the idea behind
a. alternate landfill usage.
b. burying waste products.
c. recycling.
d. burning waste products.
c. recycling.

The earth naturally recycles water and refreshes the land in a process scientists call
a. the ecological transformation.
b. hydrosynthesis.
c. the swamp effect.
d. the hydrologic cycle.
d. the hydrologic cycle.

According to current predictions, by 2050 what percentage of the world’s people will be living in water-stressed areas?
a. 4 percent
b. 14 percent
c. 24 percent
d. 40 percent
d. 40 percent

How many motor vehicles are there in the United States, a nation with an adult population of about 200 million people?
a. 150,000
b. 1.5 million
c. 25 million
d. 253 million
d. 253 million

The world’s wealthier societies have entered a postindustrial era with industrial technologies giving way to computer technologies. Which of the following is a benefit of this change?
a. Cleaner technology means cleaner air.
b. Less can be spent on education, especially at the college level.
c. Higher cancer levels means a reduction in overall population.
d. More people in developing nations can play video games.
a. Cleaner technology means cleaner air.

Research shows that improvement in U.S. air quality over the last several decades has resulted in
a. no change in the amount of acid rain.
b. adding about half a year to the typical lifespan.
c. more and more children exercising outdoors.
d. no change in patterns of human health.
b. adding about half a year to the typical lifespan.

Precipitation, made toxic by air pollution, that destroys plant and animal life, is referred to as
a. acid rain.
b. killer cloudbursts.
c. infected water.
d. pea soup.
a. acid rain.

Which term refers to regions of dense forestation, most of which circle the globe near to the equator?
a. tropical swamps
b. bayous
c. rain forests
d. bogs
c. rain forests

. In all, the world’s rain forests cover what percentage of Earth’s total land surface?
a. 10 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 75 percent
a. 10 percent

The world’s rain forests are
a. increasing because of active replanting.
b. shrinking by about 1 percent or 21,000 square miles annually.
c. no longer in danger, due to strict environmental protection policies.
d. likely to face total extinction by 2030.
b. shrinking by about 1 percent or 21,000 square miles annually.

The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released by factories and automobiles has soared, while the quantity of plant life on earth has been diminished. The net result is a rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, which in turn has led to
a. acid rain.
b. air pollution.
c. global warming.
d. increasing biodiversity.
c. global warming.

Experts estimate that the current atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is how much higher than it was 250 years ago?
a. 7 percent
b. 12 percent
c. 35 percent
d. 42 percent
d. 42 percent

Rain forests help slow global warming because
a. plants remove oxygen from the air and expel carbon dioxide.
b. they provide protection from acid rain for humans and animals.
c. plants remove carbon dioxide from the air and expel oxygen.
d. they provide a greenhouse effect that encourages other plants to grow..
c. plants remove carbon dioxide from the air and expel oxygen.

As carbon dioxide builds up in the atmosphere, it allows heat from the sun to pass in to the earth, while preventing much of it from radiating back into outer space. This process is referred to as
a. acid rain.
b. pea soup.
c. the greenhouse effect.
d. the atmospheric deficit.
c. the greenhouse effect.

Scientists report that, over the past century, the earth’s average temperature
a. rose by .7 degrees Fahrenheit.
b. rose by 1.7 degrees Fahrenheit.
c. has stayed steady.
d. fell by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
b. rose by 1.7 degrees Fahrenheit.

If the planet’s average temperature rises several more degrees during the twenty-first century,
a. a large portion of the polar icecaps will melt, flooding much of the coastal United States.
b. evaporation would drop sea levels about one foot.
c. the rains forests would quickly expand to cover the planet.
d. about half of current living species would be unable to survive.
a. a large portion of the polar icecaps will melt, flooding much of the coastal United States.

Several dozen species of plants and animals cease to exist every day. This trend is referred to as
a. the demise of the ecosystem.
b. declining biodiversity.
c. ecological Armageddon.
d. ethnographic doomsday.
b. declining biodiversity.

Which of the following statements is a true effect of declining biodiversity?
a. The Earth’s biodiversity plays a major role in feeding the world’s people.
b. Medical and pharmaceutical researchers will be able to bank DNA from extinct species.
c. Fewer species mean fewer animals exhaling CO2, thus preventing global warming.
d. We must improve conditions for endangered animals so that they can breed in captivity, otherwise we will lose part of the beauty and complexity of our natural environment.
a. The Earth’s biodiversity plays a major role in feeding the world’s people.

The designers at a manufacturing company are coming out with a new product but they want to sell more units, so they deliberately engineer the products to have a limited useful life. This illustrates the concept of
a. cultural diffusion.
b. deliberate dumping.
c. conspicuous consumption.
d. planned obsolescence.
d. planned obsolescence.

A social-conflict theorist who takes a Marxist class-conflict position is likely to agree with which of the following statements?
a. The hierarchical organization of the United States gives control over our society to the greatest number of people.
b. Most of the harm done to the natural environment is directed at people living in overdeveloped nations.
c. Most of the planet’s people live in poor societies and will never raise their living standards under the current capitalist world economy.
d. Corporate executives who order the release of pollutants or toxic waste are usually held personally accountable for their actions.
c. Most of the planet’s people live in poor societies and will never raise their living standards under the current capitalist world economy.

What term refers to the pattern by which environmental hazards are greatest for poor people, especially minorities?
a. environmental racism
b. ecological class bias
c. the double whammy
d. global inequality
a. environmental racism

Herman is a social-conflict theorist blames capitalism for the world’s environmental problems. His colleague Max points out that when Europe was divided between the capitalist west and the socialist east, the strongest complaints about environmental quality were directed at
a. social democracies like Sweden and Denmark.
b. capitalist countries in North America, not Europe.
c. Eastern bloc countries such as Poland and the Soviet Union.
d. countries in the southern hemisphere, like Brazil and South Africa.
c. Eastern bloc countries such as Poland and the Soviet Union.

Which political point of view takes an optimistic view that society is able to recognize environmental problems and take action to solve them?
a. conservative
b. liberal
c. radical right
d. radical left
a. conservative

According to conservative analyst Julian Simon, the fact that the planet supports six times as many people as it did when Malthus was alive is cause for
a. gloom.
b. laws to limit population.
c. celebration.
d. a major increase in spending to study environmental issues
c. celebration.

The conservative point of view recognizes that humans have been able to devise new, more productive technologies that Malthus himself could not have imagined. For this reason, the conservative point of view may be characterized as
a. environmentally neutral.
b. pessimistic.
c. anti-Malthusian.
d. neo-Malthusian.
c. anti-Malthusian.

44. Many environmentalists, especially those on the political left, claim that if humanity does not change its ways, problems of population increase, resource consumption, and pollution will cause
a. catastrophe.
b. moderate change in people’s lifestyles.
c. little long-term change in our way of life.
d. the government to step back from regulating the economy.
a. catastrophe.

Many analysts suggest that the planet already has more people than it can support in the long term; this means we have exceeded our planet’s
a. demographic potential.
b. carrying capacity.
c. ecological balance.
d. environmental balance.
b. carrying capacity.

Helen is an environmentalist. When she says that the goal of this movement is establishing an ecologically sustainable culture, she means
a. a healthy environment requires an economic system that delivers both equality and environmental awareness.
b. human ingenuity and an economic system that encourages innovation will extend the human record of living longer, healthier, and richer lives.
c. a way of life that meets the needs of both the present and future generations.
d. that a society’s impact on the environment is a function of its level of population, its level of affluence, and its level of technology.
c. a way of life that meets the needs of both the present and future generations.

According to which political point of view is the natural environment in serious danger due to capitalism’s appetite for ever-increasing growth and profits?
a. radical left
b. radical right
c. conservative
d. liberal
a. radical left

According to which political point of view must government reforms include enacting and enforcing laws to limit further environmental damage, and for global organizations to work to protect the remaining rain forests?
a. conservative
b. radical right
c. radical left
d. liberal
d. liberal

According to which political point of view should we look to the market system to develop new technology leading to people living longer and healthier lives?
a. radical right
b. conservative
c. liberal
d. radical left
b. conservative

A sustainable environment demands an outlook that highlights the environmental consequences of human actions. Such an outlook is described as
a. anti-Malthusian.
b. ecocentric.
c. egocentric.
d. ethnocentric.
b. ecocentric.

Which term refers to violent conflict between nations or organized groups?
a. terrorism
b. war
c. guerrilla activity
d. insurrection
b. war

Which term refers to the absence of violent conflict?
a. alignment
b. stabilization
c. peace
d. social equilibrium
c. peace

Chemical weapons are one example of
a. weapons of mass destruction.
b. automatic weapons.
c. mutually assured destruction.
d. strategic arms initiatives.
a. weapons of mass destruction

The death toll from the U.S. Civil War was about
a. 335,000
b. 600,000
c. 2 million
d. 10 million
b. 600,000

The text mentions seven factors that promote the outbreak of war. Which of the following correctly states one of these seven factors?
a. Societies mobilize their armed forces in response to perceived threats.
b. Cultural and religious differences bring people together to resolve conflicts
c. A periodic show of force can be one way for a nation to lose their leadership position in the world.
d. Leaders usually use armed conflicts to successfully solve domestic social problems.
a. Societies mobilize their armed forces in response to perceived threats.

During the Balkan conflict, the Serbs deported, imprisoned, or killed hundreds of thousands of Croats, Muslims, and ethnic Albanians. This process is referred to as
a. environmental racism.
b. asymmetrical warfare.
c. ethnic cleansing.
d. institutionalized discrimination
c. ethnic cleansing.

The text notes that U.S. leaders justified the Korean War and the war in Vietnam as efforts to keep the world safe from communism, illustrating which factor identified as promoting war?
a. moral objectives
b. wealth and power
c. absence of alternatives
d. cultural and religious differences
a. moral objectives

The People’s Republic of China engaged in military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet at least partly in order to
a. comply with international law.
b. increase its wealth.
c. respond to an external attack.
d. divert attention from domestic social problems.
d. divert attention from domestic social problems.

Every year, the nations of the world spend about how much for military purposes?
a. $17.5 million
b. $175 million
c. $175 billion
d. $1.75 trillion
d. $1.75 trillion

In 2014, the U.S. defense budget was roughly _______ for each citizen of the country.
a. $2
b. $20
c. $200
d. $2,000
d. $2,000

After World War II, the United States maintained tense relations with the Soviet Union in a
a. cold war.
b. stalemate.
c. political standoff.
d. war.
a. cold war.

After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union each boosted military spending to try to prevent the other from gaining a military edge. This pattern is called
a. a diplomatic standoff.
b. an arms race.
c. a military confrontation.
d. an arms gap.
b. an arms race.

Which term refers to a close association among the federal government, the military, and the defense industries that dominate our nation’s politics?
a. the corporate-military pact
b. the big three
c. the military-industrial complex
d. the strategic defense initiative
c. the military-industrial complex

The worldwide death toll from World War II was
a. under 10 million.
b. about 20 million.
c. nearly 30 million.
d. more than 50 million.
d. more than 50 million.

During World War II, both the Germans and the Allied forces repeatedly bombed each other’s cities in attacks that weakened the enemy’s ability and will to fight. These military activities illustrate
a. a Star Wars philosophy.
b. limited war.
c. total war.
d. technological war.
c. total war.

In war, military prisoners—including noncombatants—are confined for purposes of state security, exploitation, punishment, or execution in
a. concentration camps.
b. halfway houses.
c. battle prisons.
d. political correctional camps.
a. concentration camps.

Between 1942 and 1944, the United States set up internment camps, which the government filled with
a. 100,000 war refugees from Asia.
b. 100,000 German prisoners of war.
c. 100,000 domestic war resistors.
d. 100,000 people of Japanese ancestry.
d. 100,000 people of Japanese ancestry.

What agreements, reached between 1864 and 1949, provide rules for the conduct of war?
a. Constitution of War
b. Geneva Conventions
c. War Contract
d. War Rules Summits
b. Geneva Conventions

An offense against the law of war as established by international agreements and international law is called
a. a war crime.
b. a legal infraction.
c. a rule of war violation.
d. a battle offense
a. a war crime.

Which term includes political, racial, or religious persecution—including systematic killing—of any civilian population during war?
a. crimes against humanity
b. crimes against peace
c. conventional war crimes
d. international offenses
a. crimes against humanity

Soldiers have long talked about “battle fatigue” or “shell shock.” After the Vietnam War, what disorder of this kind was widely recognized as a war-related disability?
a. withdrawal symptoms
b. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
c. night sweats
d. napalm syndrome
b. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

About how many U.S. veterans have a disability resulting from an injury during military duty?
a. 3,500
b. 35,000
c. 350,000
d. 3.5 million
d. 3.5 million

Through which government agency is health care provided free of charge to ex-prisoners of war, those with service-related injuries or disabilities, and veterans with income below the poverty line?
a. Medicaid Department
b. the Department of Veterans Affairs
c. the Social Security Administration
d. the Department of Health and Human Welfare
b. the Department of Veterans Affairs

Among all U.S. veterans, how many have incomes below the poverty line?
a. 1.5 million
b. 150,000
c. 15,000
d. 15 million
a. 1.5 million

In 1945, the United States military dropped atomic bombs on two cities:
a. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.
b. Berlin and Nuremberg, Germany.
c. Rome and Naples, Italy.
d. Moscow and Leningrad, USSR.
a. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

In today’s all-volunteer military, the armed forces are made up mostly of
a. immigrants.
b. economically well-off men and women.
c. working-class people.
d. middle-class people.
c. working-class people.

In 2014, about how many operational nuclear weapons are held by the United States and the Russian Federation?
a. 30
b. 300
c. 1,300
d. 3,100
d. 3,100

Which term refers to the acquisition of nuclear weapon technology by more and more nations?
a. the Star Wars initiative
b. nuclear proliferation
c. the arms race
d. the strategic defense initiative
b. nuclear proliferation

Which term refers to a strategy to keep the peace based on the threat of retaliation?
a. nuclear disarmament
b. strategic defense initiative
c. deterrence
d. resolving underlying conflict
c. deterrence

Which term refers to international agreements on the development, testing, production, and deployment of weapons?
a. mutual assured destruction
b. arms control
c. deterrence
d. strategic defense initiative
b. arms control

Ultimately, the most effective way to end war is
a. to eliminate underlying conflicts.
b. strengthen this country’s military power.
c. observe the Geneva Conventions.
d. impose a universal draft.
a. to eliminate underlying conflicts.

Bombings, hijackings, and assassinations carried out by individuals or groups in order to achieve a political goal are examples of
a. terrorism.
b. political assault.
c. intimidation
d. war.
a. terrorism.

Which term refers to situations in which one government provides money, weapons, and training for terrorists who engage in violence in another nation?
a. repressive state terrorism
b. global negotiation
c. offensive national action
d. state-sponsored terrorism
d. state-sponsored terrorism

Mohandas K. Gandhi built his life around the idea that the most effective path to peace and justice is to practice nonviolence rather than war. At that time, his immediate goal was
a. to encourage his people to live peacefully under British rule.
b. to stop the civil war within India.
c. the liberation of India from the colonial control of the British.
d. to become the most powerful man in India.
c. the liberation of India from the colonial control of the British.

The use of military power by the government of Syria in 2012 against political opponents is an example of
a. state-sponsored terrorism
b. repressive state terrorism
c. offensive internal terrorism
d. direct terrorism
b. repressive state terrorism

The United States claims that Iran engages in state-sponsored terrorism for supporting Hezbollah fighters in Lebanon who are frequently at war with Israel; Iran counters that Israel, with the support of the United States, engages in terrorism against its neighbors. This goes to show that
a. both nations are trying to get the United States on their side.
b. the United States is a major player in state-sponsored terrorism.
c. only the United States can be trusted to define terrorism.
d. whether we label actors as “terrorists” or “freedom fighters” is a matter of politics.
d. whether we label actors as “terrorists” or “freedom fighters” is a matter of politics.

In 2013, there were about how many terrorist attacks worldwide?
a. 700
b. 1,700
c. 9,700
d. 90,700
c. 9,700

In the 1970s, Pol Pot conducted a campaign of repressive state terrorism against the people of
a. Cambodia.
b. Thailand.
c. Vietnam.
d. Laos.
a. Cambodia.

Edward Wilson (1975) developed a biological theory of conflict that claims some human behavior, including war and aggression, results from
a. competition among males for reproductive success.
b. inadequate socialization.
c. too much violence in the media.
d. economic inequality.
a. competition among males for reproductive success.

Which theoretical analysis notes how war can have the consequence of uniting a county’s population?
a. social-conflict analysis
b. symbolic-interaction analysis
c. structural-functional analysis
d. social-disorganization analysis
c. structural-functional analysis

The greatest resistance to opening more combat assignments to women is the
a. idea that women in the military are less intelligent and educated than their male counterparts.
b. traditional gender view of women as nurturers.
c. issue of sexual intimacy in a “co-educational” military.
d. concern about sexually transmitted diseases.
b. traditional gender view of women as nurturers.

Which theoretical analysis helps us to understand the importance of meanings, for example, whether a particular side is seen as part of the problem or part of the solution?
a. symbolic-interaction analysis
b. structural-functional analysis
c. social-conflict analysis
d. sociobiology analysis
a. symbolic-interaction analysis

Which theoretical analysis highlights the link between war and social inequality?
a. sociobiological analysis
b. symbolic-interaction analysis
c. structural-functional analysis
d. social-conflict analysis
d. social-conflict analysis

People at which position on the political spectrum tend to favor military strength as the best way to keep the peace?
a. conservative
b. liberal
c. radical left
d. radical right
a. conservative

The Democratic victory in the 2006 congressional elections and the election of President Obama in 2008 were driven, in large part, by the voters’ view that
a. the Iraq War had turned world opinion against the United States and encouraged even greater terrorism.
b. the United States should do whatever is necessary to identify those responsible for terrorism and bring them to justice.
c. the United States pours money into militarism not for national defense but to operate as a global police force.
d. war and terrorism will continue until the world moves toward greater social equality
a. the Iraq War had turned world opinion against the United States and encouraged even greater terrorism.

Which political position claims that peace can only come through establishing equality among all people in the world?
a. radical left
b. conservative
c. radical right
d. liberal
a. radical left

The radical left position claims that the United States is likely to engage in military action when any other nation
a. appears to be weak.
b. threatens the operation of the world’s capitalist economy.
c. threatens our national morality.
d. disagrees with this country’s politics.
b. threatens the operation of the world’s capitalist economy.

Which political point of view recognizes that there is a need for defense, but reminds us that militarism itself can be a problem because an arms buildup is expensive and provokes conflict?
a. radical right
b. conservative
c. radical left
d. liberal
d. liberal

From which position on the political spectrum is a person likely to view what is often called “terrorism” as a political tool used by powerless people in their fight for justice?
a. radical right
b. conservative
c. radical left
d. liberal
c. radical left

Which position on the political spectrum is likely to support the claim of “peace through strength”?
a. radical right
b. conservative
c. radical left
d. liberal
b. conservative