Society: The Basics – Chapter 7

question

Deviance
answer

The recognized violation of cultural norms.
question

Crime
answer

The violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law.
question

Social Control
answer

Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors.
question

Criminal Justice System
answer

The organizations – police, courts, and prison officials – that respond to alleged violations of the law.
question

Primary Deviance
answer

Deviance that provokes slight reactions from others and has little effect on a person’s self-concept.
question

Secondary Deviance
answer

Deviance during which a person takes on a deviant identity by talking, acting, or dressing in a different way, rejecting the people who are critical, and repeatedly breaking the rules.
question

Stigma
answer

A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity.
question

Retrospective labeling
answer

Interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance.
question

White-Collar Crime
answer

Crime committed by people of high social position on the course of their occupations.
question

Corporate Crime
answer

The illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf.
question

Organized Crime
answer

Business supplying illegal goods or services.
question

Hate Crime
answer

A criminal act against a person or a person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias.
question

Due Process
answer

The criminal justice system must operate according to law.
question

Retribution
answer

An act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as the suffering caused by the crime.
question

Deterrence
answer

The attempt to discourage criminality by the use of punishment.
question

Rehabilitation
answer

A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses.
question

Criminal Recidivism
answer

Later offenses by people previously convicted of crime.
question

Shock Probation
answer

A policy by which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time but them suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation.
question

Community-Based Corrections
answer

Correctional programs operating within a society at large rather than behind prison walls.
question

What do biological and psychological approaches to deviance examine and how are they limited?
answer

Biological; biological traits in combination with environmental factors explain some serious crime. Problem? Most of the actions we define as deviant are carried out by people who are biologically quite normal. Psychological; deviance is view as the result of \”unsuccessful\” socialization. Problem? These approaches view deviance as a trait of individuals. Wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society.
question

What are the social foundations of deviance?
answer

1. Deviance varies according to cultural norms. 2. People become deviant as others define them that way. 3. How societies see norms and how they define rule breaking both involve social power.
question

What is Durkheim’s explanation for deviance?
answer

There is nothing abnormal about deviance and it performs four essential functions.
question

According to Durkheim, what are the 4 functions of deviance?
answer

1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. 2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries. 3. Responding to deviance brings people together. 4. Deviance encourages social change.
question

What is Robert merton’s strain theory of deviance?
answer

The extent and type of deviance people engage in depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals.
question

Explain the processes of deviance Merton identifies.
Explain the processes of deviance Merton identifies.
answer

question

What is labeling theory of deviance?
answer

The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions.
question

What is Thomas Szasz’s controversial view on deviance?
answer

He charges that people are too quick to apply the label of mental illness to conditions that simply amount to a difference we don’t like.
question

What does the medicalization of deviance mean?
answer

The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition. Examples: Alcoholism, Obesity, Drug Addictions, Child Abuse, and Sexual Promiscuity.
question

How does transforming deviance from a moral and legal condition into a medical condition affect responses to deviance and perceptions of the \”deviant\” person?
answer

It affects who responds to deviance, police vs physicians. It affects how people respond to deviance, punishment vs treatment.
question

What is the differential association theory?
answer

A person’s tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior.
question

What is control theory?
answer

Social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior.
question

According to the social conflict approach, what is the labeling of deviance based on?
answer

Deviance is linked to social inequality.
question

According to Alexander Liazos, what behaviors and which people are more likely to be labeled deviant and why?
answer

The powerless – homeless, poor people – are more likely to be labeled because they threaten the wealthy, the powerful have the resources to resist deviant labels, widespread belief in norms and laws are natural and good masks the powerful’s political character.
question

According to Spitzer, who tends to be the target for deviant labeling and why?
answer

People who interfere with the operation of capitalism, because capitalism is based on private control of wealth, capitalism depends on productive labor, capitalism depends on respect for authority figures.
question

According to Edwin Sutherland, how is white-collar crime usually solved, and how is this claim a social-conflict approach?
answer

They usually end up in a civil hearing rather than a criminal courtroom. These criminals are treated differently because of their status.
question

According to the feminist theory, how does gender figure into the study of deviance?
answer

Virtually every society in the world places stricter controls on women than on men.
question

Who commits more crime, men or women?
answer

Men.
question

What are crimes against the person, what crimes are included in this category?
answer

Violent crimes or crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others; murder, manslaughter, aggravated assault, forcible rape, and robbery.
question

What are crimes against property, what crimes are included in this category?
answer

Property crimes or crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others; burglary, larceny-theft, auto theft, and arson.
question

According to figure 7-2, which crime is most common in recent years?
answer

Larceny-theft.
question

What are victimless crimes and what are examples?
answer

Violations of law in which there are no obvious victims; illegal drug use, prostitution, and gambling.
question

Homicide
answer

The willful killing of one human being by another.
question

Aggravated Assault
answer

An attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury.
question

Forcible Rape
answer

The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.
question

Robbery
answer

Taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of another person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear.
question

Burglary
answer

The unlawful entry go a structure to commit a serious crime or theft.
question

Larceny
answer

The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another.
question

Auto Theft
answer

The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle.
question

Arson
answer

Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn the personal property of another.
question

From where does the FBI gather its criminal statistics?
answer

Victimization surveys.
question

What are victimization surveys and what do they suggest about the actual amount of crime in the US?
answer

Asking a representative sample of people if they had any experience with crime. The actual number of serious crimes was more than twice as high as police reports indicate.
question

Who is more likely to commit crime in terms of gender, age, social class, and race?
answer

Gender: Men Age: Late Teens Social Class: People of Lower Social Position Race: White
question

What are possible reasons suggested by the text for correlation between social class and crime?
answer

The link is dependent on the type of crime.
question

What are possible reasons suggested by the text for correlation between race and crime?
answer

First, race in the US closely relates to social standing. Second, black and white family patters differ. Third, prejudice prompts white police to arrest black people more readily and leads to citizens to report African Americans more willingly, so people of color are overly criminalized. Fourth, the official crime index does not include arrests for offenses ranging from drunk driving to white-collar violations. Finally, some categories of the population have unusually low arrest rates.
question

According to Elliot Currie, what factors explain the high crime rate in the US?
answer

Crime stems from our culture’s emphasis on individual economic success, frequently at the expense of strong families and neighborhoods.
question

What does the concept of due process refer to?
answer

The criminal justice system must operate according to law.
question

Throughout history, what is the oldest justification for punishing an offender?
answer

Satisfying retribution.
question

What are advantages of community-based corrections?
answer

Reduced costs, reduce overcrowding in prisons, and allow for supervision of convicts while eliminating the hardships of prison life and the stigma that accompanies going to jail.
question

What is the topic of Michelle Alexander’s article, \”The Color of Justice\”?
answer

The ugly side of The War on Drugs.
question

What is Alexander’s main argument in \”The Color of Justice\”?
answer

Rates and patterns of drug crime do not explain the glaring racial disparities in our criminal justice system.
question

According to Alexander, which racial groups have been the biggest victims of the War on Drugs?
answer

African-Americans and Latinos.
question

What does Alexander’s evidence show?
answer

A formally \”colorblind\” criminal justice system achieves racially discriminatory results by first, granting law enforcement officials extraordinary discretion regarding whom to stop, search, arrest, and charge for drug offenses. Second, demanding that anyone who wants to challenge racial bias in the system offer, in advance, clear proof that racial disparities are the product of intentional racial discrimination.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member