Social Studies Set 1 " Egypt Terms"

Silt
Fertile Soil from floods

Black Land
The call the river valley the Black Land because soil is fertile and black

Red Land
The desert all around is called the Red Land

Delta
The end of the river where it branches out and despenses in an ocean or sea.

Great Green
The North and East lies the sea to- the Egyptians call it the Great Green. What egyptains call the Meditteranean Sea.

Papyrus
A long, thin reed that grew wild along the river banks paper-like writing material. used for making paper, baskets, sandals, boats

Cataract
A part of the Nile River where the water is forced through a narrow channel.

Red Crown
A crown that was worn by the king of Lower Egypt- a short boxy red crown with a tall spike at the back and a curlicue at the front

White Crown
A crown that was worn by the king of Upper Egypt- a tall, white, pear shaped crown

Double Crown
A crown that stood for the union of two lands

Embalming
The process of treating the body to protect it from decaying-took 70 days and preserved the body by using natron salt

Mummy
a body after the embalming

Canopic Jars
The jars which held the internal organs

Afterlife
The life which the Egyptians believed existed after death.

Old Kingdom
tbd

Middle Kingdom
tbd

New Kingdom
tbd

Deity
Another word for a god.

Isis
the wife of Osiris

Osiris
God of the dead

Horus
God of the “red land” son of Isis and Osiris killed his uncle set-lost his left eye in battle with set

Ra (Re)
The Egyptian god of the sun.

Hapi
The Egyptian god of the Nile.

Cartouche
the name of a pharaoh that will have a closed circle around it

Ba
the bird soul that traveled to the family

Ka
the twin of the person who traveled to the Field of Reeds

Khufu (Cheops)
The ruler of egypt that the great pyramid at Giza was built for

Zoser (Djoser)
The Pharaoh the first pyramid (The Step Pyramid) was built for by Imhotep

Tut
The boy king whose tomb was more famous than he was because it was fully intact when found.

Imhotep
The architect who created the step pyramid.

Ptomely V
The Pharaoh written on the Rosetta Stone

Hatshepsut
One of the only female pharaoh’s in the New Kingdom. She was often addressed as king and seen in public with a tuft on her chin. She concentrated on improving the life of Egyptians instead of conquering other countries.

Tuthmosis 3
A pharaoh that ruled right after Hatshepsut and hated her.

Ammit the Devourer
The god who would eat you if your heart weighed more than the feather of truth or Ma’at.

Dynasty
a series of rulers from the same family

Ibu
A special shelter where the body is washed and purified

Book of the Dead
tbd

rosetta stone
A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.

social hierarchy pyramid
social hierarchy pyramid
how society is divided into different classes of people; the people at the top of pyramid have more power than the people at the bottom of the pyramid

hieroglyphics
hieroglyphics
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

pyramids
pyramids
A massive structure with a square base and four triangular sides that meet at a point. In the Old Kingdom, were used as tombs for the pharaohs.

King Tut
King Tut
A young king whose tomb was filled with jewelry, robes, burial masks, and ivory statues. These findings have helped people learn about Egypt’s past, Known as the boy king because he ruled for 9 years and died before his 20th birthday

Sphinx
Sphinx
A monster with the face of a woman, the body of a lion, and the wings of a bird. She posed a riddle to the citizens of Thebes and devoured the young men who could not answer it. The riddle usually given is, “What walks on four legs in the morning, on two at midday, and on three in the evening?” In Egypt it is usually seen as a huge statue with the body of a lion and a head of a man, representing the sun god Ra.

King Menes
King Menes
Egyptian Pharaoh who united Lower Egypt (north of the Nile delta) with Upper Egypt (from Nile to first cataract as Aswan): 3100 BCE. He also established the first of many dynasties which ruled for nearly 3000 years.

dynasty
dynasty
A sequence of powerful leaders in the same family.

embalming
embalming
process developed by the ancient Egyptians of preserving a person’s body after death

mummy
mummy
A body preserved by chemical processes or special natural circumstances, often in the belief that the deceased will need it again in the afterlife. In ancient Egypt the bodies of people who could afford mummification underwent a complex process of removing organs, filling body cavities, dehydrating the corpse with natron, and then wrapping the body with linen bandages and enclosing it in a wooden sarcophagus.

canopic jars
canopic jars
Jars in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of a deceased person usually for burial with the mummy.

sarcophagus
sarcophagus
a stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)

delta
delta
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake

Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
Ancient kingdom of southern Egypt; in the mountains and it is the source of the Nile;, fertile strip with an average width of around 6 miles

Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
The northern region of ancient Egypt, named so because it was located downriver with the Nile’s flow.

wheat and barley
wheat and barley
Two most important crops grown in ancient Egypt.

Nile River
Nile River
The world’s longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea, “Egypt has often been called the ‘Gift of the Nile’ because outside the valley of that great river the country is a desert. An immense, flowing ribbon of water, the Nile spans the length of the country from south to north, branching finally into an extraordinary delta as it approaches the Mediterranean. The river provides natural irrigation along its banks and invites further man-made irrigation to extend its waters to the east and west” (Spodak 65). The Nile river is a river surrounded by a fertile valley fed by the rivers silt. The valley provided a place for one of the first civilizations to be developed, with its heart at the Nile delta. Agriculture was developed along this river due to the extremely fertile conditions and lack of food in the barren deserts outside of the valley, which led to the creation of cities. Today, there are few populated areas in Egypt outside of the Nile Valley.

cataracts
cataracts
Cataracts- areas where the water was too swift and rocky to allow boats to pass, which protected Egypt from invasion along the Nile River

nobility
nobility
A small social class of elite people and families who perform political, military, and administrative duties for a ruler or king. This class had immense power and social influence over the other classes.

pharaoh
pharaoh
A king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader.

Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
(2575 BCE – 2134 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by the building of the Great Pyramids at Giza.

Khufu
Khufu
(ruled 2500s BC) Egyptian pharaoh, he ruled during Egypt’s Old Kingdom and is known for the many monuments built to honor him.

afterlife
afterlife
After death the heart is weighed to the feather of truth and if it balances out then they go to afterlife. If it is heavier (with guilt) it is summoned to nothing!

elite
elite
People of wealth and power

engineering
engineering
Application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines.

Middle Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. – 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.

New Kingdom
New Kingdom
(1550 BCE – 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.

trade routes
trade routes
Waterways, paths, and trails that traders used to move goods for exchange from one place to another.

Queen Hatshepsut
Queen Hatshepsut
ruler who increased egyptian trade. she sent traders to the kingdom of punt and traded with people in asia minor and greece.

Ramses the Great
Ramses the Great
Egyptian Pharaoh he expanded the kingdom and built lasting temples at Karnak, Luxor, and Abu Simbel. He is often considered one of Egypt’s greatest rulers.

papyrus
papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.

obelisk
obelisk
A 4 sided stone structure with a pyramid on the top and hieroglyphics on the sides

silt
mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks

delta
fertile flat land made of silt left behind as a river drains into a larger body of water.

irrigation
watering of land by means of canals and pipes

about how long is the Nile?
over 4,000 miles long

What are some of the foods farmers planted?
wheat, barley, cucumbers, lettuce, onions, and beans. Also a plant called flax, to make cloth

unification
joining of separate parts into one

economy
the way its people manage money and recources for the production of goods and services

scribe
made records, contracts, and kept tract of daily life big or small

papyrus
a reed plant that makes paper

Menes
king of upper egypt, took over lower egypt in 3100B.C

Khufu
egyptian pharaoh who built the great pyrmids

Memphis
capital city located in between upper and lower egypt. near present day Cairo

Thebes
an anent city in upper egypt that became the capital of the new kingdom

empire
group of lands and people by one government

expedition
group of people who go on a trip for a set reason

Ahmose
new kingdom pharoah who drove Hyksos out of egypt and reunited egypt

Hatshepsut
one of the few egyptian pharaohs; organized a trade expedition to Punt

Tutankhamun
Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from about the ages of 7-17;tomb remained nearly untouched until its discovery in 1922

Nubia
An ancient kingdom south of egypt

Kush
An ancient kingdom in northeastern Africa conquered by Egypt. It later regained independence and flourished through trade between 500b.c and 150a.d

Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
west of Thebes in ancient egypt, the burial place of 30 new kingdom pharaohs

how did egypt become an empire?
when it conquered Nubia, Syria, and Lebanon

social pyramid
A diagram illustrating the divisions between a culture; usually showing the most powerful person or group at the top and the least powerful at the bottom

what is the order of the social pyramid?
Pharaoh, Gov. Officials, Soldiers, Scribes, Merchants, Artisans, Farmers, Slaves

What are the flood months?
July-October

shadouf
a bucket lifter

how long did the old kingdom last?
2,686B.C-2,181B.C

rosseta stone
the key to hieroglyphics. Three languages: hieroglyphics, late Egyptian demotic, and Greek

Who found the rosetta stone?
in 1799 a french soldier was digging in the Nile delta and found the rosetta stone

How long did the Middle Kingdom last?
2100 to 700B.C

Ancient Egypt began with farming communities along the Nile River.

Menes united all the Egyptian cities in 3100 BC

Egypt grew as rulers such as Hatshepsut led trading expeditions to other regions

Goods produced in Thebes were traded across the Egyptian empire

Great stone monuments such as the pyramids were built for Egypt’s powerful rulers

The ebb and flow of the Nile River made agricultural development possible, which in turn made the development of Egyptian civilization possible
S1 main idea

Describe how floods enriched and fertilized Egypt’s land
Mineral-rich silt deposits and irrigration technology made farming in ancient Egypt very productive

Explain how Egyptians interacted with the Nile to develop a rich agriculture
Famers’ understanding of the yearly Nile floods made community life in Egypt possible

The Nile is the world’s longest river; it is more than 4000 miles long
People used boats to get from place to place along the Nile

Land of Pharoahs (3100BC – 2000BC): Egyptian civilization grew out of the unification of the Nile communities and the Pharoahs central role
S2 main idea

Explain how Egypt was united
Menes united the kingdoms of upper and lower Egypt to form the largest government in the world at the time

Describe the pharaoh’s central role in Egyptian development and life
The pharaoh was central to Egypt’s government, economy and religtion

Describe hieroglyphics, the Egyptian system of writing
The writing system of Egypt, called hieroglyphics, provided a way for government workers to communicate over long distances

Analyze the Egyptian economy
Ordinary people worked to build huge government building projects like the Great Pyramid. This strained both Egypt’s economy and people.

Ancient Egyptian Civilization (2100 BC to 1300 BC): During the MIddle and New Kingdoms, Egyptian civilization flourished as it met other cultures
S3 main idea

Analyze how Egypt’s cultural horizons were broadened by both trade and war
Trade and war helped to link Egypt with its neighbors in the Sahara, Nubia, western Asia, and the Mediterranean; Egypt became an empire when it conquered Nubia, Syria, and Lebanon. These new lands gave Egypt a wealth of new resources upon which to draw.

Describe how the pharaoh Hatshepsut expanded Egypt’s trade
Pharaoh Hatshepsut expanded trade to a region of Eastern Africa called Punt.

Identify major achievements of the Middle and New Kingdoms
The Egyptians knowledge of medicine, math, and science became famous among their neighbors. Hyksos skills in metalworking became part of life in Egypt.

What was the significance of King Tut’s tomb?
The discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb in 1922 yielded hundreds of New Kingdom artifacts

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt (1550BC-1100BC): Egyptian civilization rested on the labor of stable, well-trained working groups who kept the economy productive.
S4 main idea

Analyze the makeup of the social pyramid that was ancient Egypt.
While Egypt became a mighty empire, ordinary people continued to work in much the same ways as they had for thousands of years.

Explain the role of slavery there.
Enslaved Syrians and Nubians became key workers in Egypt’s empire. They worked alongside farmers and craftworkers to produce needed crops and goods.

Describe the work and home life of ordinary ancient Egyptians.
Most farmers worked on large farms owned by powerful families; Most people in Egypt’s towns and cities lived in crowded neighborhoods and crafted goods for a living.

Around 1100BC united Egypt collapsed. The fall of the New Kingdom ended one of the richest civilizations in history.

Lower Egypt
Area of Egypt closer to the delta, lower elevation, left side

Upper Egypt
Lay farther south, away from the Mediterranean Sea.

Divisions of Ancient Egypt
Pre-dynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom & New Kingdom

Narmer
King of Upper Egypt about 3000 BC. Conquered lower Egypt and set up first government that ruled all Egypt. Built captial at Memphis. First Egyptian dynasty.

Palette of Narmer
Palette of Narmer
Hierakonpolis, Predynastic, slate. ca. 3000-2920BCE. commemorates the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Narmer, the largest figure, effortlessly defeats a foe on one side, and on the other surveys the beheaded enemy. Palette in the shape of an object used to prepare eye makeup, to protect from the glare of the sun.

Pictogram
drawing used to represent a word

Phonogram
any written symbol standing for a sound or syllable or morpheme or word

Hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

Hathor
in Egyptian religion – the cow or the lovely lady- She represents dancing, music, joy, and love. She was shown as a cow to represent motherly love.

Horus or Ra
Egyptian falcon-headed solar god. He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.

Osiris
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead

Ankh
Ankh
the Egyptian symbol of life; a cross with a loop at the top

Canon of Proportions
The ratio between a figure’s height and all of its component parts. The Egyptian canon was an 18 unit grid based on the width of the fist.

Mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof

Stepped Pyramid of Djoser
[Old Kingdom, Saqqara] (2630-2611) Built by Imhotep first known artist in history. Consists of six unequal solid mastabas one on top of the other with burial chamber below ground.

Serdab
A small concealed chamber in Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased for the Ka to find

Column
(architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright pillar with three sections; a base, a pillar and top called a capital and used to support weight, usually a roof.

Great Pyramids of Gizeh
Great Pyramids of Gizeh
Fourth Dynasty, c. 2575-2450 BCE, Granite and limestone funerary complex.

Ka Statue of Khafre
Ka Statue of Khafre
Gizeh, Egypt. 4th dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE, diorite. Depicts Khafre as an enthroned divine ruler with a perfect body. Rigidity of the pose creates the effect of an eternal stillness, appropriate for the timeless afterlife., 2700-2544 BCE- Old Kingdom-Egyptian

Ka
an Egyptian concept referring to one’s life force

Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
The Great Sphinx of Gizeh (Arabic: “The Father of Fear”) is a half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo.

Menkaure and His Wife
Menkaure and His Wife
Gizeh, Egypt. 4th dynasty. ca. 2490-2470 BCE. Frozen gestures indicate marriage, and the wife’s holding onto Menkaure indicates submission, with Menkaure’s left foot forward indicating dominance and action.

Seated Scribe
Seated Scribe
Saqqara, 5th dynasty, ca. 2450-2350 BCE. painted limestone. The color adds a lifelike quality, and the sculptor conveyed the personality of a sharply intelligent and alert individual seldom achieved at this early date.

Rock Cut Tombs, Beni Hasan
Rock Cut Tombs, Beni Hasan
[Middle Kingdom] (1950-1900 BCE)
• Cliff walls hollowed out to reveal small burial chambers
• Reserve columns cut away from the interior chamber to create the look of conventional columns
• Columns are not round but fluted
• Façade shows shallow columned porch

Senwosret III
Senwosret III
Dynamic king & successful general from the 12th dynasty. Portrait fragment seems to reflect something of his personality and inner thoughts.

Egyptian Faience
Egyptians made vessels using faience (sand w/clay naturally existing in it). This sand mixture could be fired—capillary action brings color (from glassy glazing mixture) to surface. Can be molded precisely but can’t be turned on wheel because the faience doesn’t have enough plasticity. Blue is most clear when the amount of clay is limited

Hippopotamus from tomb of Senbi
Hippopotamus from tomb of Senbi
Meir, Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938-1755 BCE, Faience

Hypostyle Hall
Hypostyle Hall
a hall with a roof supported by columns

Pylon
Pylon
The wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls.

Karnak
Karnak
Great temple of Amen at Thebes, the largest complex of religious buildings in the World

Luxor
Luxor
temple complex in upper Egypt in Thebes where kings were buried or celebrated. lots of temples and ceremonial things. Located next to valley of the kings.

Amun
god of air and wind, fertility god, creator of all things, a bearded man or ram headed, believed to be the physical father of all pharoahs

Mut
Mother Goddess, Mother of Pharaohs, wife of Amun

Pylon of Ramesses II
Pylon of Ramesses II
New Kingdom. From the Temple of Amun, Mut and Khonsu, Luxor, 19th Dynasty. 1279-1212 BCE

Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
New Kingdom Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)

Funerary temple of Hatshepsut
Deir el-Bahri, 18th dynasty, New Kingdom

Senenmut
Senenmut
Egyptian architect of Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut., Hatshepsut’s steward, advisor and possible lover. Tutor of Hatshepsut’s daugther, Nefrua.

Amarna Period
New Kingdom. Capital was in Amarna and Akhenaton was king – changed worship to single god – Aten. Artistic style was realistic and showed sloping fore-heads and pot-bellies

Akhenaton
Formerly named Amenhotep, he was a pharaoh who changed Egyptian religion to revolve around the sun god, and moved the capital.

Ramesses II
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a military standoff. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.

Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel
Temple built by Ramses the Great that was carved out of sandstone cliffs and at its entrance, four 66-foot-tall statues show Ramses as pharaoh.

Nefertari
One of Great Pharaoh Ramesses II’s queens, most favored wife, during the Nineteenth Dynasty.

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
New Kingdom queen of Egypt and wife of Akhenaton (14th century BC)

Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their children
Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their children
New kingdom. Limestone. 1350 BCE.

Aten
Represented as the sons disc with rays, Aten was the Lord of the Heaven and Earth. He became the most important god during the reign of Akhenaten.

Tutankhamun
Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from age 7 to 17; his tomb was discovered (nearly untouched) in 1922

Death Mask of Tutankhamun
Death Mask of Tutankhamun
-made from gold inlaid with turquoise, camelian, and lapis lazuli
-came with scarab from King Tut’s tomb
-New Kingdom, Egyptian

Rosetta Stone
Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics.

Memphis
Memphis
What is at A?

Thebes (Luxor)
Thebes (Luxor)
What is at B?

Karnak
Karnak
What is at C?

Abydos
Abydos
What is at D?

Temple of Ramessess II
Temple of Ramessess II
What is at E?

Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
What is at F?

Valley of the Queens
Valley of the Queens
What is at G?

Aswan
Aswan
What is at H?

Red Sea
Red Sea
What is at K?

Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
What is at L?

Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
What is at M?

Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
What is at R?

Cataracts
Cataracts
What is at 1,2,3&4?

El-Amarna
El-Amarna
What is at N?

Shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River
What are Cataracts?

What is the afterlife to an ancient Egyptian?
Paradise! Their main purpose in life was to prepare themselves for the journey to paradise after their death.

What happened when an Egyptian died?
Body splits in two.
Physical body is mummified and prepared for resting place (tomb/pyramid)
Spiritual body (Ka) travels through the underworld towards the afterlife – paradise

How long did the process of preparing a dead Egyptian take?
70 days

How did the Egyptians mummify their dead?
Empty body
Clean body
Dry body in Natron
Clean body again
Wrap in linen bandages
Put in coffin
Put coffin in tomb

What’s the Book of the Dead?
Magic spell book to guide Ka (the spiritual body) to paradise

What is final test to get Ka to paradise?
‘Weighing of the Heart’

What is the Weighing of the Heart?
Spiritual heart weighed against Feather of Truth.
If lighter – Ka goes to paradise
If heavier, Ammit the Devourer – eats the heart, Ka never gets to paradise.

What is the Spiritual body called?
Ka

Where was the Weighing of the heart done?
‘Hall of Two Truths’

What was Ammit the Devourer?
Part lion, part crocodile and part hippo.

What was another name for Ammit the Devourer?
The Gobbler

What were the jars called that internal organs were placed in?
Canopic jars

What did the Canopic jars represent?
The sons of Horus

Which Canopic jar guarded the lungs?
Which Canopic jar guarded the lungs?
baboon head (Hapy)

Which Canopic jar guarded the intestines?
Which Canopic jar guarded the intestines?
falcon head (Qebehsenuef)

Which Canopic jar guarded the stomach?
Which Canopic jar guarded the stomach?
jackal head (Duamutef)

Which Canopic jar guarded the liver?
Which Canopic jar guarded the liver?
human head (Imsety)

Where did embalming take place?
In the special embalming shop

What did the chief embalmer wear?
A jackal mask to represent Anubis

What was the first task in embalming
Remove the soft, moist body parts that would cause decay.
Stomach, intestines, liver and lung were removed.
Preserved by drying them using natron.

What is natron
Chemically similar to table salt.
Used to dry the body parts.

What did Egyptians believe would happen to the body parts?
They would be magically reunited in the afterlife and the body would become whole again.

Where were canopic jars normally placed?
In a chest that was later placed in the tomb with the mummy.

What was another organ removed from the body (although it didn’t get a jar)
the brain (took it out through the nose with a brain hook)

What did the Egyptians think of the brain
Not much – did not realise it’s importance – thought it produced snot

What happened once all the organs were removed from the body?
Body was washed with wine and rubbed with spices (helped kill bacteria)

What happened after body had been washed with wine and rubbed with spices?
Was covered with natron for 40 days.

After the body had dried in Natron for 40 days what did they do?
Body cleaned again and rubbed with sacred oils to soften skin.

After body had been cleaned again and rubbed with sacred oils what did they do?
Adorned with jewellery, covered in shroud and wrapped with linen strips.

what was inserted between the layers of the linen?
small magic amulets to protect the mummy so his Ka could live forever.

After the body was wrapped what happened?
It was placed in a sarcophagus made of gold and then a larger one carved from granite. Then placed in tomb/pyramid.

What was the last ritual?
The opening of the mouth to enable the Pharaoh to eat and talk in the next life.

Egypt
Egypt
A country located in the continent of Africa.

Nile River
Nile River
The world’s longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile played an important role in shaping the lives and society of Ancient Egypt. It provided the Ancient Egyptians with food, transportation, water, building materials, and more.

Ancient Egyptians
Ancient Egyptians
A group of people who lived along the Nile River and the Nile River Delta which are located in the present day country of Egypt.

pharaoh
pharaoh
A king of ancient Egypt who was believed to be half man and half god.

mummification
The way Egyptians protected or preserved a dead body. They put chemicals on the body and wrapped it in cloth. Finally, they covered the wrapped body in a mixture like tar.

tomb
tomb
A place or building where the dead are buried.

pyramids
pyramids
A stone building with four sides that are shaped like triangles. The Egyptians used pyramids as tombs.

papyrus
papyrus
A kind of paper made by the Ancient Egyptians from plants growing along the Nile.

hieroglyphics
hieroglyphics
A type of picture writing that was the writing system used by the ancient Egyptians.

Queen Hatshepsut
Queen Hatshepsut
An Egyptian queen who was the first female pharaoh. She worked to increase trade with places outside of Egypt and ordered many impressive monuments and temples built during her reign.

King Tutankhamen
King Tutankhamen
An Egyptian pharaoh who died while still a young king. The discovery of his tomb in 1922 has taught archaeologists much about Egyptian culture.

Nile River Valley
Nile River Valley
An ancient civilization region where the Egyptians lived. Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. This looks a bit confusing on a map because Upper Egypt is to the south and Lower Egypt is to the north.

Ramses II
Ramses II
greatest of New Kingdom pharaohs – reigned for 66 years

savannas
grasslands south of Egypt

Memphis
Old kingdom capital

Hyksos
Westerm Asia people who conquered Egypt

Cataracts
Wild Rapids formed by boulders nd narrow cliffs within the Nile River

Thebes
Middle Kingdomm capital

Khufu
Khufu
built the Grat Pyramid

Isis
represented the loyal wife and mother

Hathepsut
female pharaoh who concentrated on trade, building Egypt’s economy

papyrus
papyrus
reed plant used to make paper

The pharaoh
believed to be the son of Re, the sun god

Sahara
Sahara
the largest desert in the world

The Great pyrimid
The Great pyrimid
Largest building in the world for over 4000 years. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world

pyramids
entrance always faced north

Nile
Nile
longest river

Hapi
goddess wo ruled the Nile River

Lower Egypt
land around the Nile River delta

Re
chief god

Amenhotep
tried to bring a new monotheistic religion to Egypt

Egyptian Imports
incense, ivory, gold, iron tools, ebony

Egyptian Exports
beads, other metal tools,

rooftops
where Egyptian families spent time together

Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
collection of prayers and spells to help obtain the afterlife

Egyptian Crops
Egyptian Crops
flax, wheat, and barley

tribute
forced payment

dynasty
line of rulers from the same family – passes power from father to son

Narmer/Menes
united Upper and Lower Egypt

Nubia
today known as Sudan

1 - Herodotus
1 – Herodotus
– Greek author who traveled throughout the known world
– explored Egypt & the Nile in the 400s B.C.

1 - Upper Egypt
1 – Upper Egypt
– area in ancient Egypt in the Nile Valley, south of the river’s delta and the 30th northern parallel

1 - Lower Egypt
1 – Lower Egypt
– area in ancient Egypt, in the northern Nile River region

1 - -cataracts
1 – -cataracts
– rock-filled rapids; strong flood or rush of water
– waterfalls

1 - delta
1 – delta
– the place at the mouth of a river where it splits into several streams to form an area shaped like a triangle

1 - silt
1 – silt
– rich, fertile soil deposited by the flooding of a river

2 - pharaoh
2 – pharaoh
– the title of the kings of ancient Egypt

2 - regent
2 – regent
– someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule

2 - dynasty
2 – dynasty
– a series of rulers from the same family

2 - Hatshepsut
2 – Hatshepsut
– stepmother of Thutmose III
– ruled Egypt as regent and then as pharaoh
– achieved economic success, especially in trade

2 - Menes
2 – Menes
– founder of the first Egyptian dynasty
– unified Upper & Lower Egypt
– founded the capital of Memphis

2 - Thutmose III
2 – Thutmose III
– stepson of Hatshepsut
– considered the greatest pharaoh of the New Kingdom of Egypt
– reigned for over 50 years
– expanded the empire to include Syria & Nubia

3 – afterlife
– the next life, in which the dead are believed to live again

3 - mummy
3 – mummy
– a dead body preserved in lifelike condition

3 - pyramid
3 – pyramid
– a huge building with four sloping outside walls shaped like triangles
– in Egypt, they were build as royal tombs

3 - Giza
3 – Giza
– an ancient city capital of Upper Egypt
– site of the Great Pyramids

3. Black Land & Red Land
– ancient Egyptians called their land Kemet (the black land),
because of the dark soil left by the Nile’s floods.
– desert land on each side of the Nile was the Red Land

3. Major Time Periods in Ancient Egypt
– Old Kingdom: earliest time period of the groups of Egyptian dynasties ( Great Pyramid began, Sphinx built at Giza)
– Middle Kingdom: middle time period of the groups of Egyptian dynasties (Egypt expands into Lower Nubia, literature & art flourish, government is strengthened)
– New Kingdom: latest time period of the groups of Egyptian dynasties ( Queen Hatshepsut & King Tut rule during this time, Egyptian territory expands)

4 - hieroglyph
4 – hieroglyph
– a kind of picture writing in which some pictures stand for ideas or things and others stand for sounds

4 - astronomer
4 – astronomer
– a scientist who studies the stars and other objects in the sky

4 - papyrus
4 – papyrus
– an early form of paper made from a reedlike plant found in the marshy areas of the Nile delta

4 - Jean Francois Champollion
4 – Jean Francois Champollion
– French scholar
– first to decode Egyptian hieroglyphics

4 - Rosetta Stone
4 – Rosetta Stone
– an ancient tablet covered with Egyptian & Greek hieroglyphics
– provided a key to deciphering hieroglyphics

5 - artisan
5 – artisan
– a worker who is especially skilled in making something, such as baskets, leather goods, tools, jewelry, pottery, or clothes

5 - Taharka
5 – Taharka
– prince of Nubia
– became king of Nubia & Egypt

5 - Kerma
5 – Kerma
– a market town in present-day Sudan
– an ancient Nubian city

5 - Napata
5 – Napata
– one of the three most powerful Nubian kingdoms
– located between the third & fourth cataracts of the Nile River in Upper Nubia

5 - Meroe
5 – Meroe
– a city of ancient Nubia in present-day Sudan
– first Africans to specialize in ironworking

Akhenaton
– king of ancient Egypt
– introduced monotheism
– lost much of Egypt’s provincial territories

Ptolemy V
– king of ancient Egypt
– married to Cleopatra
– ascension to the throne is recorded on the Rosetta Stone

Ramses II
– king of ancient Egypt
– reign marked by great splendor & the building of monuments

Tutankhamen
– king of ancient Egypt
– excavation of his tomb provided new knowledge about Egyptian art & history

Nile River
Nile River
the longest river in the world; the Ancient Egyptians depended upon it for survival

Giza
Giza
a city of Ancient Egypt; the location of the Great Pyramid

Delta
Delta
triangular area at the mouth of a river; the Nile had very fertile land in this area

Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing using pictures to represent sounds and language

Jean Francois Champollion
Jean Francois Champollion
French scholar that unlocked the Egyptian code of writing using the Rosetta Stone

Artisan
Artisan
a person especially skilled in a particular craft or trade such as weaving, pottery, jewelry making, leather-working, tool making, etc.

Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
on a map of Ancient Egypt this would have been located in the south due to elevation

Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
on a map of Ancient Egypt this would have been located in the north due to elevation

Rosetta Stone
Artifact that unlocked the mystery of Egyptian hieroglyphics

Pharaoh
Pharaoh
The title of a king or a queen in Ancient Egypt

King Tut
King Tut
A young king whose tomb was filled with jewelry, robes, burial masks, and ivory statues. These findings have helped people learn about Egypt’s past

Menes
Menes
King of Upper Egypt united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt

Afterlife
Afterlife
the next life in which the Egyptians believed the dead would live again

Weighing of the Heart Ceremony
Weighing of the Heart Ceremony
The Egyptians believed that when someone died they would be judged in this ceremony; the heart against the feather of truth

Silt
Silt
Rich fertile soil good for farming; usually deposited by river flooding

Regent
Regent
Someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule

Thutmose III
Thutmose III
Stepson of Hatshepsut; considered a great pharaoh of the New Kingdom of Egypt

Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
the first female pharoah of Egypt; stepmother of Thutmose III

Astronomy
Astronomy
branch of science that studies the stars, the moon, the planets, and other celestial bodies

Sphinx
Sphinx
Mythological creature thought to have the head of a pharaoh and the body of a lion

Pyramids
Pyramids
Huge archaeological structures built as tombs for the pharaohs

Howard Carter
Howard Carter
He discovered King Tutankhamen’s (King Tut) royal tomb, Englishman and Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen

Cataract
Cataract
rock filled rapids in a river; also can refer to a waterfall in a river

Scarab
Scarab
Sacred insect that the Egyptians believed was connected to the sun-god Ra; believed to help protect the heart of a deceased Egyptian in the afterlife

Dynasty
Dynasty
series of rulers from the same family

Osiris
Osiris
God of the afterlife; god of the dead; shown with the crown of upper and lower egypt usually holding a crook and flail in his hands

Anubis
Anubis
God of mummification and/or embalming; shown with the head of a jackal

Isis
Isis
Goddess of motherhood and fertility; the husband of Osiris

Ra/Amon-Re
Ra/Amon-Re
Sun god; often thought of as the most important Egyptian God

Silt
Silt
A fertile mixture of tiny bits of soil and rock.

Delta
Delta
Very fertile, flat land made of silt left behind as a river drains into a larger body of water.

Irrigation
Irrigation
The watering of land by means of canals or pipes.

Unification
Unification
The joining of separate parts into one.

Pharaoh
Pharaoh
The ruler of Egypt.

Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics
Ancient Egypt’s system of writing made up of picture signs.

Scribe
Scribe
A professional writer who kept records and copied letters and official documents.

Papyrus
Papyrus
A reed plant used to make paper.

Inundation
Inundation
Yearly flooding of the Nile River

Monarchy
Monarchy
A government ruled by a king or a queen.

Polytheism
Polytheism
The belief in many gods.

Nile River
the longest river in the world and the reason the ancient Egyptians survived and thrived

Delta
a triangular-shaped area where a river fans out and divides as it flows into a larger body of water

Cataracts
6 steep rapids on the Nile River

Black Land
fertile land on the banks of the Nile River

Red Land
barren desert land that protected Egypt on two sides

Upper Egypt
the land near the Nile’s delta, in the northern part of ancient Egypt

Lower Egypt
the land in the Nile River Valley, in the southern part of ancient Egypt