Social Psychology IU chapters 1,2,3, and 4 – Flashcards

question
Social Psychology
answer
the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by there real or the imagine presence of other people
question
Social influence
answer
the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors
question
Individual differences
answer
the aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
question
fundamental attribution error
answer
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
question
behaviorism
answer
a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
question
Construal
answer
the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
question
Gestalt Psychology
answer
a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
question
self esteem
answer
People's evaluations of their own self-worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
question
social cognition
answer
how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions
question
hindsight bias
answer
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred.
question
observational method
answer
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
question
ethnography
answer
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived motions they might have
question
Interjudge reliability
answer
the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impressions of one individual
question
archival analysis
answer
a from of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture
question
correlational method
answer
the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed
question
correlation coefficient
answer
a statistical technique that assess how well you can predict one variable from another- for example, how well you can predict people's weight from their height
question
surveys
answer
research in what a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior
question
random selection
answer
a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
question
experimental method
answer
the method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable.
question
independent variable
answer
the variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
question
dependent variable
answer
the variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable
question
random assignment to condition
answer
a process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
question
p-value (probability level)
answer
a number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not by the independent variable or variables
question
internal validity
answer
making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable; controlling all extraneous variables
question
external validity
answer
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
question
psychological realism
answer
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
question
cover story
answer
a description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose and is used to maintain psychological realism
question
field experiments
answer
experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the lab
question
replications
answer
repeating a study
question
meta-analysis
answer
a statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
question
basic research
answer
studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
question
applied research
answer
studies designed to solve a particular social problem
question
cross-cultural research
answer
research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised
question
evolutionary theory
answer
a concept developed by charles darwin to explain the ways in which animals adapt to their environments
question
natural selection
answer
the process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations
question
evolutionary psychology
answer
the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
question
informed consent
answer
agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the environment, which has been explained in advance
question
deception
answer
misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
question
IRB
answer
an institution that reviews all the psychological research at that institution and decides whether it meets ethical guidelines
question
Debriefing
answer
explaining to participants at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired
question
social cognition
answer
how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions.
question
automatic thinking
answer
thinking that is non conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
question
schemas
answer
mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subject and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
question
accessibility
answer
the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgements about the social world.
question
priming
answer
the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
the case wherein people have an expectation about what other person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people's original expectations, making the expectations come true
question
judgmental heuristics
answer
mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently
question
availability heuristic
answer
a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
question
representativeness heuristic
answer
a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
question
base rate information
answer
information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
question
analytic thinking style
answer
a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context
question
holistic thinking style
answer
a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other
question
controlled thinking
answer
thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
question
counterfactual thinking
answer
mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imaging what might have been
question
overconfidence barrier
answer
the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgements
question
social perception
answer
the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
question
nonverbal communication
answer
the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze.
question
Encode
answer
to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
question
Decode
answer
to interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on back was an expression of condensation and not kindness.
question
Affect Blend
answer
a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion.
question
Display rules
answer
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
question
Emblems
answer
nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations- such as the OK sign
question
implicit personality theory
answer
a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well.
question
attribution theory
answer
a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior.
question
internal attribution
answer
the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
question
external attribution
answer
the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
question
covariation model
answer
a theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs.
question
consensus information
answer
information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
question
distinctiveness information
answer
information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
question
consistency information
answer
information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
question
perceptual salience
answer
the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
question
two step process of attribution
answer
analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
question
self serving attributions
answer
explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external situational factors.
question
defensive attributions
answer
explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and morality
question
bias blind spot
answer
the tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking that we are
question
belief in a just world
answer
a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
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question
Social Psychology
answer
the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by there real or the imagine presence of other people
question
Social influence
answer
the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors
question
Individual differences
answer
the aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
question
fundamental attribution error
answer
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
question
behaviorism
answer
a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
question
Construal
answer
the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
question
Gestalt Psychology
answer
a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
question
self esteem
answer
People's evaluations of their own self-worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
question
social cognition
answer
how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions
question
hindsight bias
answer
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred.
question
observational method
answer
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
question
ethnography
answer
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived motions they might have
question
Interjudge reliability
answer
the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impressions of one individual
question
archival analysis
answer
a from of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture
question
correlational method
answer
the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed
question
correlation coefficient
answer
a statistical technique that assess how well you can predict one variable from another- for example, how well you can predict people's weight from their height
question
surveys
answer
research in what a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior
question
random selection
answer
a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
question
experimental method
answer
the method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable.
question
independent variable
answer
the variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
question
dependent variable
answer
the variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable
question
random assignment to condition
answer
a process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
question
p-value (probability level)
answer
a number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not by the independent variable or variables
question
internal validity
answer
making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable; controlling all extraneous variables
question
external validity
answer
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
question
psychological realism
answer
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
question
cover story
answer
a description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose and is used to maintain psychological realism
question
field experiments
answer
experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the lab
question
replications
answer
repeating a study
question
meta-analysis
answer
a statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
question
basic research
answer
studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
question
applied research
answer
studies designed to solve a particular social problem
question
cross-cultural research
answer
research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised
question
evolutionary theory
answer
a concept developed by charles darwin to explain the ways in which animals adapt to their environments
question
natural selection
answer
the process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations
question
evolutionary psychology
answer
the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
question
informed consent
answer
agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the environment, which has been explained in advance
question
deception
answer
misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
question
IRB
answer
an institution that reviews all the psychological research at that institution and decides whether it meets ethical guidelines
question
Debriefing
answer
explaining to participants at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired
question
social cognition
answer
how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions.
question
automatic thinking
answer
thinking that is non conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
question
schemas
answer
mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subject and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
question
accessibility
answer
the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgements about the social world.
question
priming
answer
the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
the case wherein people have an expectation about what other person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people's original expectations, making the expectations come true
question
judgmental heuristics
answer
mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently
question
availability heuristic
answer
a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
question
representativeness heuristic
answer
a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
question
base rate information
answer
information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
question
analytic thinking style
answer
a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context
question
holistic thinking style
answer
a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other
question
controlled thinking
answer
thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
question
counterfactual thinking
answer
mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imaging what might have been
question
overconfidence barrier
answer
the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgements
question
social perception
answer
the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
question
nonverbal communication
answer
the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze.
question
Encode
answer
to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
question
Decode
answer
to interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on back was an expression of condensation and not kindness.
question
Affect Blend
answer
a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion.
question
Display rules
answer
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
question
Emblems
answer
nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations- such as the OK sign
question
implicit personality theory
answer
a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well.
question
attribution theory
answer
a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior.
question
internal attribution
answer
the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
question
external attribution
answer
the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
question
covariation model
answer
a theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs.
question
consensus information
answer
information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
question
distinctiveness information
answer
information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
question
consistency information
answer
information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
question
perceptual salience
answer
the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
question
two step process of attribution
answer
analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
question
self serving attributions
answer
explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external situational factors.
question
defensive attributions
answer
explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and morality
question
bias blind spot
answer
the tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking that we are
question
belief in a just world
answer
a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people