Social Psychology Chapters 11 and 12

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Need to belong
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a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
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The Pain of Rejection
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(2003) reported that social ostracism evokes a brain response similar to that triggered by physical pain.
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Proximity
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geographical nearness. more precisely, \”functional distance\”, powerfully predicts liking.
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Mere-exposure effect
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the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them.
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Matching Phenomenon
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the tendency for men and women to choose partners who are a \”good match\” in attractiveness and other traits.
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Physical-Attractiveness Stereotype
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The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well; What is beautiful is good.
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Complementarity
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The popularity supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other.
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Ingratiation
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the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another’s favor.
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Reward Theory of Attraction
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The theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events. (Proximity is rewarding, helps explains influences on attraction)
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Passionate Love
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a state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner’s love, and are disconsolate on losing it.
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Two-factor Theory of Emotion
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(Arousal) x (its label) = emotion.
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Caudate Nucleus
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the part of the brain that is most active when gazing at an individual you love, or feel attracted toward.
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Companionate Love
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the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined.
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Secure Attachment
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Attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
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Avoidant Attachment
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Attachments marked by discomfort over, or resistance to, being close to others.
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Insecure Attachment
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Attachments marked by anxiety or ambivalence
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Equity
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A condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it. Note: Equitable outcomes needn’t always be equal outcomes.
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Self-Disclosure
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Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
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Disclosure Reciprocity
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The tendency for one person’s intimacy of self-disclosure to match that or a conversational partner.
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Altruism
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a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self interests.
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Social-Exchange Theory
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The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs.
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Egoism
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A motive to increase one’s own welfare, often underlying all behavior. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase one other’s welfare.
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Reciprocity Norm
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An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
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Social Capital
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The mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network.
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Social Responsibility Norm
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An expectation that people will help those needing help.
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Kin Selection
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The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.
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Overcoming Selfishness
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We use mechanisms like: -kin selection -direct reciprocity -indirect reciprocity -group selection
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Empathy
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The vicarious experience of another’s feelings; putting oneself in another’s shoes.
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Bystander Effect
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The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
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Door-in-the-face Technique
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A strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request.
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Moral Exclusion
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The perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness. More Inclusion is regarding others as within one’s circle of moral concern.
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Overjustification Effect
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The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.

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