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Social Psychology and Human Nature 2E Chapter 3

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Self-knowledge (self-concept)
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a set of beliefs about oneself.
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Interpersonal Self (public self)
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the image of the self that is conveyed to others.
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Agent Self (executive function)
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the part of the self involved in control, including both control over other people and self-control.
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Self as Impulse
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a person’s inner thoughts and feelings.
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Self as Institution
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the way a person acts in public, especially in official roles.
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Independent Self-Construal
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a self-concept that emphasizes what makes the self different and sets it apart from others.
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Interdependent Self-Construal
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a self-concept that emphasizes what connects the self to other people and groups.
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Social Roles
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the different roles a person plays, as in a play or a movie.
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Self-awareness
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attention directed at the self.
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Private Self-Awareness
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looking inward on the private aspects of the self, including emotions, thoughts, desires, and traits.
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Public Self-Awareness
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looking outward on the public aspects of the self that others can see and evaluate.
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Standards
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ideas (concepts) of how things might possibly be.
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Public Self-Consciousness
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thinking about how others perceive you.
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Self-Regulation
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the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
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Looking-Glass Self
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the idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others.
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Generalized Other
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a combination of other people’s views that tells you who and what you are.
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Introspection
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the process by which a person examines the contents of his or her mind and mental states.
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Social Comparison
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examining the difference between oneself and another person.
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Upward Social Comparison
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comparing yourself to people better than you.
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Downward Social Comparison
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comparing yourself to people worse off than you.
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Self-Perception Theory
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the theory that people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling.
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Phenomenal Self (Working Self-Concept)
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the image of self that is currently active in the person’s thoughts.
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Intrinsic Motivation
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wanting to perform an activity for its own sake.
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Extrinsic Motivation
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performing an activity because of something that results from it.
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Overjustification Effect
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the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with rewards.
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Appraisal Motive
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the simple desire to learn the truth about oneself, whatever it is.
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Self-Enhancement Motive
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the desire to learn favorable or flattering things about the self.
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Consistency Motive
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a desire to get feedback that confirms what the person already believes about himself or herself.
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Self-Handicapping
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putting obstacles in the way of one’s own performance so that anticipated or possible failure can be blamed on the obstacle instead of on lack of ability.
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Automatic Egotism
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response by the automatic system that “everything good is me, and everything bad is not me”.
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Self-Reference Effect
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the finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information.
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Endowment Effect
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the finding that items gain in value to the person who owns them.
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Self-Esteem
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how favorably someone evaluates himself or herself.
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Self-Protection
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trying to avoid loss of esteem.
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Self-Deception Strategies
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mental tricks people use to help them believe things that are fake.
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Self-Serving Bias
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a pattern in which people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure.
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Sociometer
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a measure of how desirable one would be to other people.
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Narcissism
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excessive self-love and a selfish orientation.
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Self-Presentation
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any behavior that seeks to convey some image of self or some information about the self to other people.