Social Psychology 2606 – Test 3 – CU Boulder – Dr.King

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Pro-social Behavior
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An act (possibly involving risk or sacrifice) that benefits others or has positive social consequences.
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The Case of Katherine \”Kitty\” Genovese
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Kitty Genovese (March 1964) Queens New York. Woman who a bartender and was attacked on her way home. Neighbors heard but no one called the police. Man stabbed and murdered her. 30 minutes, 38 people heard. Pluralistic Ignorance – \”I bet 100 people have called the police by now\”
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Latane & Darley
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1970 – Bystander Intervention \”Decision Tree\”
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\” Bystander Intervention Decision Tree \”
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Decision making process that may or may not result in pro-social behavior. Linear processes, helper goes through stages in order.
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Steps of the Bystander Intervention Decision Tree (5)
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1.) Notice Incident? —sometimes too much noise to even notice the incident 2.) Interprets it as an emergency? 3.) Assumes Responsibility—\”I don’t want to get involved\” 4.) Believes in ability to help?—may be a good swimmer but can you save a drowning person 5.) Attempts to help! If the answer is no to any of the question then there is no help given.
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**ESSAY Bystander Effect
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As the number of bystanders increases, helping behaviors decrease! Even 5 bystanders can greatly decrease helpful interventions, as apposed to 2 bystanders. As the number of bystanders goes up, helping reaction time increases. Ex.) Kitty Genovese murder
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*** In the matching section the first answer will be…
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B
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Explanation of the Bystander Effect
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Diffusion of responsibility – as a group size increases, responsibility becomes more diffuse, therefore responsibility is shared. \”Well their not doing anything so I don’t need to either.\”
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Ally Effect
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One person with the courage to be a social dissident can inspire other to help and diminishes the bystander effect.
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Empathy – Altruism Hypothesis
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When we feel empathy we will help someone for altruistic reasons without regard for gain
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Altruism Paradox
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Is it really possible to help someone without thinking about the rewards? I think so.
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**Internal Norms (2)
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Socially defined standards of behavior (socialization) 1.) Social Responsibility Norm – we should help those who need our help. The golden rule. One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself. People say they believe in this but not as likely to practice it as #2. 2.) Reciprocity Norm – Moral obligation to help others who have helped us. Hey I lent you 10 bucks that one time, now I need 10 bucks. Much more popular.
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Kin Selection Theory (BOOK)
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Key goal for all organisms is to get their genes out into the next generation. Help others who share our genes. Helping behavior in non-human species as well.
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**ESSAY Model of Incompatible Responses
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Some behaviors are mutually exclusive, engaging in one behavior precludes engaging in an opposite behavior. If someone makes you laugh you are less likely to be mad at them. Ex.) Jim Carey was bullied and beat up at school so he started to tell the bully jokes and he wouldn’t beat him up. Humor and anger aren’t compatible so aggression decreases.
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**ESSAY Negative Affect Theory
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As temperature increases so does aggression. Ex.) Baron experiment 1976. People in the experiment became more aggressive when the temperatures in the room became \”stuffy\” – mid 80’s
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**ESSAY Deindividuation
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A state of anonymity that may produce a decrease in inhibition against deviant behavior not being focused on yourself, the feeling of being anonymous. Ex.) Riots that took place on the hill here at CU. Large group of people, alcohol involved, and dressed in costumes, made people feel like not themselves, causes them to be aggressive in a large group and do things they wouldn’t normally do. Ex.) Saying mean things online when you are behind the safety of your screen and a fake user name.
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Baiting Behavior
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Crowds encourage aggressive behavior. Crowds at a hockey game, a fight breaks out on the ice and everyone is screaming for blood.
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Mann 1981 When did the behavior increase?
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Baiting behavior study about suicide. 21 cases of attempted suicide from buildings. 10 out of 21 cases the crowd urged the person to jump. -During evening hours -If person was between the 6th and 12th floor -During summer months
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Similarity
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You are more likely to show aggression toward people who are similar to us because we know how they would react.
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Prejudice
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Unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. Thinking a small group of people attitude and behaviors represents that race as a whole.
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Sterotype
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Generalized negative belief about a group of people Ex.) \”all Mexicans are lazy\” \”all Asians are smart\” \”all Irish are drunks\” THOUGHTS
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Discrimination
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Negative predisposition or action against a group behavior. Ex.) In the 60’s when they would not let blacks eat at certain restaurants. ACTIONS
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**ESSAY or MATCH Culture of Honor
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A set of societal norms whose central idea is that people, particularly men, should be ready to defend their honor with violent retaliation if necessary. Ex.) Southern states of the U.S. have higher violent crime rates than the rest of the country. Southern men are more willing to stand up for themselves using physical aggression – particularly if they have been insulted, or believe their homes are threatened.
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**ESSAY or MATCH Stereotype Threat
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The fear that one might confirm the negative stereotypes held by others about one’s group. Ex.) Students in a study perform academically beneath their potential when they fear confirming the negative stereotypes held for their groups.
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**ESSAY or MATCH Realistic Group Conflict
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The proposal that inter-group conflict, and negative prejudices and stereotypes, emerge out of actual competition between groups for desired resources. Ex.) Muzafer Sherif in the 1950s. Sherif conducted a field experiment at Robber’s Cave State Park in Oklahoma using 22 adolescent males. Each of the 22 participants was 12 years old, came from a 2-parent home, and was from a white middle-class background. None of the participants knew each other before the experiment. Sherif divided the males into two separate groups: the Eagles and the Rattlers. Neither of the groups was aware of the other’s existence during the first stage of the experiment. During the first stage, the participants were involved in several activities with their group members such as hiking and swimming. These activities allowed participants to form attachments with their group and create their own group culture, norms, and expectations. Sherif began to notice that the groups were calling each other names and teasing each other. However, as the competitive games continued, the groups became increasingly hostile. For example, the Eagles set the Rattlers’ flag on fire and the Rattlers destroyed the Eagles’ cabin. Eventually, the groups became so hostile with one another that they had to be physically separated.
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**ESSAY or MATCH Perceived Out-group Homogeneity
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The phenomenon of overestimating the extent to which members within other groups are similar to each other. Ex.) Let’s look at Sarah’s statement more closely. Sarah perceives that men (an outgroup) are all the same; however women (ingroup) are different. This is an example of outgroup homogeneity. Researchers at Princeton University conducted a study on outgroup homogeneity using four different student groups. Researchers found that students rated members of their own group as having a wider range of personality traits than they did members of the outgroup. This effect was seen regardless of which group the student belonged to.
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Factors that influence intervention (4)
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1.) Environmental and Upbringing – people raised in small towns are more likely to help out than someone raised in a large city. People raised by moral and altruistic parents are more helpful as well. 2.) Nature of the Victims need for Help – More legitimate the need the more likely we are to help. I need a pack of cigarettes vs I need milk. 3.) Similarity and Attraction – people most similar to us will receive our help…age, ethnicity, looks 4.) Emotional State of Helper/Victim – favorable mood enhances helping behavior if i’m happy I’ll help out more.

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