Social Problems Joel Best Vocabulary 1-5 (Soc 203 NCSU)

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objectivist
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approach to defining social problems. it tries to express the definition in terms of objectively measurable characteristics of conditions Problems: 1. can’t all agree at once 2. may agree, but for different reasons 3. include widely diverse phenomena (otherwise unrelated)
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subjectivist
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defines social problems in terms of people’s subjective sense that something is or is not a problem, making social problems a process of responding to social conditions
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social construction
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the way people assign meaning to reality needed to make sense of the world they inhabit
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social problems process
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says that the study of social problems should focus on HOW and WHY particular conditions come to be constructed as social problems
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constructionist
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approach to studying social problems that asks why people decide that something needs to be done about some conditions and how they decide exactly what should be done? (adopted by the book)
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claim
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assert or affirm strongly
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claimsmaking
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process of constructing a social problem in which someone brings the topic to the attention of others; should be troubling and have a need to be changed; the only thing all social problems have in common
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claimsmakers
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people who make claims
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troubling conditions
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the conditions that become subjects of claims; focuses our attention on people’s subjective reactions-bothers someone
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natural history
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a sequence of stages that tends to appear in lots of different cases (figure 1.1) Stages: 1. claimsmaking 2. media coverage 3. public reaction 4. policymaking 5. social problems work 6. policy outcomes
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activists
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typically what people think of claimsmakers, members of social movement organizations that devise ways of drawing attention to their cause
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experts
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another type of claimsmaker, people who make claims based on a special authority because of some special knowledge
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policymaking
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the means that society adopts to address troubling conditions, most obviously, laws can be changed
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social problems work
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the enforcement of the new social policy
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policy outcomes
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reactions to the social problems process
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resources
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theme, people with skills or power that people bring to the social problems process parts: 1.typifying example 2.name 3.statistics
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rhetoric
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theme, the study of pursuation, common to elicit emotional reactions
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feedback
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says that claimsmakers affect media coverage AND claimsmakers are affected by that coverage and adjust what they were doing in order to attract better coverage for the future
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Grounds
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part of persuasive arguments’ rhetorical structure. an assertion of facts to help back claim and argue that the condition exists.
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typifying example
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description of a particular instance of the condition (extreme) used in claims
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statistic
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number that suggest the scope of the problem
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warrants
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justify doing something about the troubling conditions, explain why something ought to be done (uses values and emotions)
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conclusions
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statements that specify what should be done
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valence issues
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claims that inspire general agreement,, issues on which most voters and candidates share the same position
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position issues
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entrenched controversies that prob never will lead to consensus
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domain expansion
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once claim is well accepted, a way to build on it
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ideologies
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coherent set of beliefs that emphasis particular warrants such as feminism
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cultural resources
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familiar ideas about how he world works shared by people around you, can work to your advantage
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outsider claimsmakers
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has no connections, needs to spark attention through media
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polity
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groups whos interests are routinely taken into account by policymakers
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insider claimsmakers
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have connections to polity and can directly sway policymakers
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social movements
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general causes that insider claimsmakers and activists are usually a part of
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SMO (social movement organizations)
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organizations within social movements
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framing
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how social movement scholars describe how activists construct their claims; viewing world with particular perspective components: 1. diagnostic 2. motivational 3. prognostic
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diagnostic frames
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grounds; identify the problem
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motivational frames
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warrants; why we need action
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prognostic frames
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conclusions; what needs to be done
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frame alignment
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the way in which social movements must address the exsisting frames or ways of looking at the world held by prospective members forms: 1.bridging 2.amplification 3.extension 4.transformation
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frame bridging
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activists seek support form ppl thought to hold frames similar to their own
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frame amplification
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activist calls upon values or beliefs that they presume many people hold in order to rally others to their cause
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frame extension
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activists enlarge their frame to encompass concerns that prospective supporters are thought to have… maybe good for another reason ex vegitarians
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frame transformation
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activists call upon prospective supporters to reject the familiar worldview that they take for granted and adopt a new frame
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frame disputes
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disagreements about how to think about the problem (usually between SMOS)
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resource mobilization
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gathering of resources needed to further social movements by activists- mainly time & $
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beneficiaries
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people who stand to benefit from a movement if it is successful
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constituents
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people who support the movement
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conscious constituents
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people who support the movement but do not expect to benefit from it
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cultural opportunities
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when people become willing to listen to the movement’s claim
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master frame
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broad orientation that can be easily adapted for application to many issues
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political opportunities
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when a distribution of power among different groups shifts so that changes that changes can occur that would not have succeeded before
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abeyance
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temporary suspension of action
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ownership
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can be established by activist when particular claims or frames become generally recognized as the best way to understand a particular issue 3 ways: 1. no one takes ownership 2. activists establish new SMO to assume ownership 3. exsisting SMO assumes ownership of a new issue
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audience
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who claim is meant to pursuade
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valance issues
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claims that inspire general agreement
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position issues
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entrenched controversies that prob never will lead to consensus
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piggyback
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claimmakers choose to jump on new troubling condition on a well-established problem ex:child abuse led to other \”abuses\”
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counterclaims
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arguments in direct opposition to orig claims ex:pro life vs choice; global warming?
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countermovements
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inspired by position issues and counterclaims to promote counter claims ex:pro-life \”counter movement\”
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medicalization
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the increased use of medical language to characterize social problems
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medical-model
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a new frame for a certain social problem created by medicalization
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biomedicalization
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the idea that many social problems that are health related are actually the result of biology and genetics
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pharmaceuticalization
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the process of defining prescription drugs as the solution
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bias
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the idea of favoritism pertaining to a certain side of a social problem by one group
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primary claims
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claimsmaking preceding media involvement, normally by experts and activists
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media coverage
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attention to a social problem by media (television, magazines, newspapers, blogs, etc)
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arenas
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a venue where social problems claims can be presented
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carrying capacity
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the amount of room a certain arena has for social problems coverage (magazines only have so many pages, television shows can only book so many activists)
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audience segmentation
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the medias idea of directing social problems coverage at a certain demographic to reach them more efficiently
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landmark narratives
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particular typifying cases of a social problem, normally become a sort of poster boy example
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packages
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a familiar, less coherent view of a social issue, including its causes and what ought to be done
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condensing symbols
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shorthand elements- landmark narratives, typifying examples, slogans, visual images, etc
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popular culture
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entertainment media sources that pick up coverage of a social problem
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sociological imagination
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viewing the world in terms of social arrangements and social problems (looking at your personal issues as a broader social issue)
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agenda setting
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media attention that makes people believe something ought to be done about a social problem

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