Social Media Marketing – Chapter 4

online comunities
group of people who come together for a specific purpose, guided by policies, supported by internet access that enables virtual communication
unified body of individuals, unified by interests, location, occupation, common history, or political and economic concerns
share membership, proximity, and interest
people connect online with kindred spirits, engage in supportive and social relationships with them, and imbue their activity online with meaning, belonging, and identity
online community
social network theory
theory that explains how networks work
all social communities are social networks
social network
set of socially relevant nodes connected by one or more relations
members of a network, aka network units
people, organizations, articles, countries, etc.
relationships between nodes, based on various affiliations such as kinship, friendship, shared experience, etc.
social graphs
visual social network, a diagram of the interconnections of units in a network
six degrees of separation
everyone is connected to everyone else by no more than six ties, drawn from small-world network model
small world network model
most nodes in a social graph are not directly linked to one another but instead indirectly connected via neighboring nodes
behavior based ties such as talking, attending an event, or working together
biggest predictor or whether someone will become active in a social network
the presence of a critical mass of friends
level of activity basis
1. people with whom you are connected
2. content/artifacts you produce
3. feedback you receive
4. distribution of the artifacts and feedback throughout the network
exchanges of resources, information, or influence among members of the network
actionable components of any social network system in terms of sharing information, delivery of promotional materials, and sources of social influence
media multiplexity
flows of communication go in many directions at any point in time and often on multiple platforms
social connections online result in face to face connections offline
word of mouth communication (WOM)
flows from node to node
more reliable and trustworthy than messages from formal marketing channels
creates social pressure to conform, influences 2/3 of all consumer goods sales
powerful when product in unfamiliar, new, technologically complex, etc.
social influence
determines whether the flow changes behavior or attitudes
power and attractiveness
social object theory
social networks will be more powerful communities if there is a way to activate relationships among people and objects
something of common interst
object sociality
the extent to which users can share an object in social media
people who join communities probably not only share an interest in the object in question; they are passionate about the object
vertical networks
sites designed around object sociality
narrow, deep focus of SNSs that differentiate themselves
members are more involved
like niche markets
niche markets
marketplaces that offer a relatively small number of items to buyers who tend to be loyal to these outlets
basic characteristics of online communities
1. conversations
2. presence
3. democracy
4. standards of behavior
5. level of particiapation
the effect that people experience when they interact with a computer mediated or computer generated environment
the better ones supply tangible characteristics that create the sensation of actually being in a place
rule by the people
community appoints or elects leaders based on their demonstrated ability to add value to the group
media democratization
members of social communities, not traditional media publishers, control the creation, delivery, and popularity of content
majority rule applies
rules that govern behavior in order to operate
many unspoken
when a post contains all capital letters to express anger
open access sites
enable anyone to participate without registration or identification
valuable for sensitive topics and ease of use
lowers barriers for misbehavior, anonymity
social contract
agreement that exists between the host or governing body and the members, sets expectations for members and host
terms of use
people who review site content but do not actually contribute
heavy users
20% of brand’s users buy 80% of the product
80/20 rule
two step flow model of influence
a small group of influencers are responsible for dissemination of information because they can modify the opinions of a large number of other people
influence network
two way dialogue, influence can be driven by influencers and interactions among those who are easily influenced
when a piece of information triggers a sequence of interactions
reasons to talk about products
1. highly involved with type of product, simply enjoy talking about it
2. knowledgeable about product, conversations let others know it
3. genuine concern for someone else
negative word of mouth
negative talk between nodes, weighed more heavily than positive
one unhappy customer tells 9 other people
word of mouse
online WOM, ease and speed
ad equivalency value
if the mention was through paid advertising, the estimate of the value of the advertising in the form of the fees they paid to place the ads
a view or exposure to an advertising message
influence impression
an exposure to a brand via another person
mass connectors
opinion leaders deliver influence impressions, 6.2% of users are responsible for 80% of impressions
three factors to tip a trend
1. law of the few
2. stickiness
3. power of context
law of the few
three types of people help to spread viral messages
1. mavens
2. connectors
3. salesmen
knowledgeable about many things
know many people and communicate with them
have natural persuasive power
memorable impact, extent to which something captures interest
when conditions are right
going viral
spreading through social networks rapidly
snippet of cultural information that spread person to person until eventually it enters the general consciousness
opinion leaders
influencers or power users, people that others view as knowledgeable sources of information
tend to be slightly high in status, education, and class
1. activists
2. connected
3. impact
4. active minds
5. trendsetters
bases of social power
1. reward power
2. coercive power
3. legitimate power
4. referent power
5. expert power
6. information power
reward power
ability to provide others with what they desire
coercive power
ability to punish others
legitimate power
organizational authority based on rights associated with a person’s appointed position
referent power
authority through the motivation to identify with or please a person
expert power
recognition of one’s knowledge, skills, and ability
information power
control over the flow of and access to information
degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs
can predict collaborative online relationships and connectivity
social capital
social currency, value lies in providing access to others
reputational capital
based on shared beliefs, relationships, and actions of those in the community such that norms, behaviors, and valued held are shared and support a community reputation
online gated communities
selectively allow access to only some people may offer a high degree of social capital
social reputation indicator that measures relative influence across several social communities
uses quality indicators and information flow
higher score, greater influence
bonding social capital
emotional support networks social currency
core ties
people with whom we have very close relationships
significant ties
people with whom we have somewhat close connections
weak ties
people where your relationship is based on superficial experiences or very few connections
bridging social capital
value we get from others who provide access to places, people, or ideas we might not get on our own
weak ties have a hand in this
latent ties
pre-existing connections that we have discarded
maintained social capital
value we get from maintaining relationships with latent ties
condition of modern industrial life that alienated individuals from society and potentially results in suicide

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