Sociology s Flashcards

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middle-income nations.
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A majority of the world’s people live in
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life threatening.
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Absolute poverty is
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200 million
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According to Anti-Slavery International, about how many men, women, and children live today in conditions that amount to slavery?
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traditional; high mass consumption
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According to Walt Rostow, nations begin at the _____ stage of development and may eventually reach the stage of _____.
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they sell raw materials to rich nations.
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According to dependency theory, poor countries have become dependent on rich nations because
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explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries.
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Dependency theory differs from modernization theory by
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925 million
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For the world as a whole, about how many people suffer from chronic hunger that leaves them less able to work and places them at high risk of disease?
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All of these are correct.
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If you were applying modernization theory to the problem of global poverty, you might expect rich nations to aid the economic development of poor nations by
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$2,500 and $12,000.
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In middle-income nations, average personal income is in the range of
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greater than in rich nations.
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In poor countries, the disadvantages women face relative to men are
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more widespread and severe
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In poor nations, poverty is_____ than in the United States.
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tradition
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Modernization theory identifies which of the following as the greatest barrier to economic development?
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treats global wealth as a \”zero sum\” so that one country benefits only at the expense of another.
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One criticism of dependency theory is that it
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increased.
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Over the course of the last century, the extent of global economic inequality has
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All of these are correct.
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Taken together, the sociological approaches to global poverty show us that poverty is
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some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of others.
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The concept of \”colonialism\” refers to the process by which
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multinational corporations exploit the economy of a poor country.
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The concept of \”neocolonialism\” refers to the process by which
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Asia.
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The global region that has made the greatest strides out of poverty is
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2 percent
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The poorest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of all global income?
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neocolonialism
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What concept refers to a global economy in which multinational corporations exploit people in low-income nations?
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dependency theory
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Which theoretical approach claims that rich nations of the world are \”overdeveloped\” while poor nations are \”underdeveloped\”?
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debt bondage
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Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts?
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chattel slavery
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Which type of slavery refers to one person owning another?
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claims rich nations are to blame for global poverty.
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With regard to the role of rich nations, dependency theory
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production of wealth; distribution of wealth
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While modernization theory focuses on _____, dependency theory focuses on _____.
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All of these are correct.
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A majority of U.S. women in which of the following categories enter the labor force?
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All of these are correct.
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According to intersection theory, which of the following is a source of social disadvantage?
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60 percent
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Approximately what percentage of U.S. women are working for income today?
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17 percent
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As of 2011, women held about what share of seats in Congress?
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All of these are correct.
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For which of the following categories of the U.S. population is it true that women do most of the housework?
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women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances.
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Comparing the performances of female and male athletes over time shows
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All of these are correct.
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In his global study of how societies view gender, George Murdock found
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women are concentrated in several categories of jobs.
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In today’s U.S. workforce,
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85-90 percent
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In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker?
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elementary school teachers
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In which of the following job categories are the workers mostly women?
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have gained opportunities and power.
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Looking back over U.S. history, we see a general trend by which women
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traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another.
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Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that
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On average, women outlive men by about five years.
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On average, do women or men live longer?
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mathematical; verbal
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On average, young men show greater ____ ability than young women; young women show greater _____ ability than young men.
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half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention.
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Sexual harassment is an important social issue because
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women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance.
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The \”beauty myth\” refers to the idea that
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people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work.
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The concept of \”comparable worth\” means that
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the barrier that prevents women from being promoted.
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The concept of \”glass ceiling\” refers to
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the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
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The concept of gender refers to
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All of these are correct.
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Throughout the life course, gender shapes
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57 percent
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Today, women represent ______ of all students on college campuses across the United States.
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matriarchy
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What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
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socialist feminism
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Which type of feminism links the social disadvantages of women to the capitalist economic system?
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since colonial times.
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Women have served in the U.S. armed forces
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radical feminism
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Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
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Bogardus’s research on social distance.
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A good example of the culture theory of prejudice is
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set apart by that society and experience subordination (disadvantage).
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A minority is defined as a category of people who are
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the 1950s and 1960s.
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A national civil rights movement, which ended most instances of lawful discrimination, took place during
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view society as naturally hierarchical.
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According to Theodor Adorno’s authoritarian personality theory, prejudiced people Correct!
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13 percent
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According to the most recent data, African Americans accounted for about what percentage of the U.S. population?
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minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.
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Assimilation refers to the process by which
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All of these are correct.
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Based on research using the social distance scale, you can correctly say that U.S. college students today
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a tool used by powerful people to oppress others.
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Conflict theory states that prejudice is Correct!
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hypersegregation
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Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton documented which of the following patterns in U.S. inner cities?
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Texas, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii
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Four states currently have a \”minority majority.\” Which are they? Correct!
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Latin America and Asia
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From which world regions do most of today’s U.S. immigrants come? Correct!
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All of these are correct.
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In the United States, minorities typically have less
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bias is built into the operation of social institutions.
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Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that
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1924.
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Native Americans gained the right to U.S. citizenship in
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All of these are correct.
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People who are called \”WASPs\” have ancestors from which country?
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biological traits; cultural traits
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Race refers to _____ considered important by a society; ethnicity refers to _____.
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frustration among disadvantaged people.
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Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by
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concentrated in the West, Southwest, and southern Florida.
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The Hispanic population of the United States is
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racial and ethnic categories do not have equal social standing.
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The United States is NOT truly pluralistic because
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non-WASPs of European ancestry.
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The concept \”white ethnics\” refers to
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prejudice and discrimination reinforce each other.
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The idea that prejudice and discrimination form a vicious circle means that
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genocide.
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The killing of people in the Darfur region of Africa is a recent example of
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the denial of basic rights to African Americans by a so-called \”democratic society.\”
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What Gunnar Myrdal called the \”American dilemma\” was
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minority
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Which of the following concepts refers to a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged? Correct!
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attitude; action
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While prejudice is a matter of _____, discrimination is a matter of _____.
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All of these are correct.
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An example of the advantage of cultural capital in U.S. schooling is parents who
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differences in home environments.
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Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the main cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is You Answered
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providing child care
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Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
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All of these are correct.
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Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including
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43 percent
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In 2009, men accounted for what share of all U.S. undergraduate college students?
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30 percent
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In the United States today, what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree? Correct!
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what families and other community members teach their children.
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In low-income nations, MOST education is a matter of
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students to specialize in specific areas of study.
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Magnet schools encourage Correct!
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All of these are correct.
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The functions of schooling include
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many young people leave school without having learned basic skills.
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The problem of functional illiteracy means that Correct!
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Earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree both raise income levels.
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Which of the following correctly states the effect of additional schooling on average income?

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