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soci quant chap 7 ppps

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Nonprobability Sampling
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– any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory. Reliance on available subjects Purposive or judgmental sampling Snowball sampling Quota sampling
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Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
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a type of nonprobability sampling in which the units to be observed are selected on the basis of the researcher’s judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative.
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Snowball Sampling
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a nonprobability sampling method whereby each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing.
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Quota Sampling
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a type of nonprobability sampling in which units are selected into a sample on the basis of pre-specified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied.
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A researcher studying college success knows that a particular university’s student body is 40% first years, 25% second years, 20% third years, and 15% fourth years. The researcher selects cases to match this distribution. What kind of nonprobability sampling technique has the researcher used?
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Because the researcher is sampling in order to match the population distribution, the quota sampling technique is being used.
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Representativeness
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the quality of a sample of having the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was selected.
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Representativeness and Probability of Selection
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A sample will be representative of the population from which it is selected if all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected in t
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EPSEM
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(Equal Probability of Selection Method)
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Element
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that unit of which a population is composed and which is selected in a sample.
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Population
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the theoretically specified aggregation of the elements in a study.
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Study Population
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a sampling method in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.
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Random Selection
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each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.
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Sampling Unit
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that element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling.
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Confidence Level
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the estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval.
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Confidence Interval
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the range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie.
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True or False: Regardless of the sample size, the mean of the sampling distribution will equal the true population mean.
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True: Regardless of the sample size, the mean of the sampling distribution will equal the true population mean
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To study college performance, a researcher obtains a list of all enrolled students at the university from the Registrar’s Office. This list is called what?
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This list would be called the sampling frame. The researcher could then select cases from that list to comprise the sample
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Types of Sampling Designs
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Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Implicit Stratification in Systematic Sampling
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Simple Random Sampling
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a type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers. A set of random numbers is generated and the units having those numbers are included in the sample.
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Systematic Sampling
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a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample.
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Sampling Interval
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the standard distance between elements selected from a population in the sample. population size/sample size
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Sampling Ratio
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the proportion of elements in the population that are selected to be in a sample. sample size/population size
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Stratified Sampling
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Stratification – the grouping of units composing a population into homogenous groups (strata) before sampling. Slightly more accurate than simple random sampling.
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Implicit Stratification in Systematic Sampling
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Systematic sampling can, under certain conditions, be more accurate than simple random sampling.
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When using systematic sampling, the first unit is selected by __________.
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When using systematic sampling, the first unit is selected by random choice.
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Cluster Sampling
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a multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially with the members of each selected group being sub-sampled afterward.
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In samples where all sample elements have the same chance of selection, each is given the same weight. This is called a __________ sample.
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In samples where all sample elements have the same chance of selection, each is given the same weight. This is called a self-weighting sample
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One of the most visible uses of survey sampling lies in _____. A. political polling B. probability sampling C. core sampling D. nonprobability sampling
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Answer: A. One of the most visible uses of survey sampling lies in political polling.
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_____ sampling occurs when units are selected on the basis of pre-specified characteristics. A. Snowball B. Quota C. Purposive D. Probability
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Answer: B. Quota sampling occurs when the units are selected on the basis of pre-specified characteristics.
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_____ describes a sample whose aggregate characteristics closely approximate the aggregate characteristics of the population. A. Exclusion B. Probability sampling C. EPSEM D. Representativeness
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Answer: D. Representativeness describes a sample whose aggregate characteristics closely approximate the aggregate characteristics of the population.
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A _____ is the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected. A. confidence level B. confidence interval C. sampling frame D. systematic sample
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Answer: C. A sampling frame is the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected.
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_____ is the general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory. A. Nonprobability analysis B. Correlation C. Probability sampling
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Answer: C. Probability sampling is the general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory.
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A _____ population is the aggregation of elements from which a sample if actually selected. A. theoretical B. small C. large D. concept E. study
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Answer: E. A study population is the aggregation of elements from which a sample if actually selected.
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Cluster sampling may be used when it is impossible to compile an exhaustive list of the elements composing the target population. A. True B. False
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Answer: A. Cluster sampling may be used when it is impossible to compile an exhaustive list of the elements composing the target population